Precil Diego Miranda de Menezes Neves a , * , Rafaela Bezerra Brito Pinheiro b , Cristiane Bitencourt Dias a , Luis Yu a , Leonardo de Abreu Testagrossa b , Lívia Barreira Cavalcante b , Denise Maria Avancini Costa Malheiros b , Lectícia Barbosa Jorge a , Viktoria Woronik a
16 April 2020
Background and Aim: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulopathy. The Oxford classification was recently updated to include crescents as markers of poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cellular crescents on the prognosis of patients with IgAN in Brazil. Methods: This was a single-centre retrospective analysis of medical records and renal biopsies in patients with IgAN. The renal biopsy findings were classified according to the revised Oxford classification: mesangial hypercellularity, endocapillary hypercellularity (E), segmental glomerulosclerosis (S), tubular atrophy or interstitial fibrosis (T), and crescent formation (C). We evaluated a composite outcome (progression to end-stage renal disease or creatinine doubling). We performed analyses between the patients with crescents in the renal biopsy specimen (C1/C2 group) and those without such crescents (C0 group). Results: We evaluated 111 patients, of whom 72 (65.0%) were women, 80 (72.0%) self-identified as White, 73 (65.6%) were hypertensive, and 95 (85.6%) had haematuria. The distribution of patients according to cellular crescentic lesions was: C0, 80 (72%); C1, 27 (24.4%); C2, 4 (3.6%). The composite outcome was observed in 33 (29.72%) of the 111 patients. In comparison with the C0 group, the C1/C2 group had higher proportions of patients with hypertension ( p = 0.04), haematuria ( p = 0.03), worse serum creatinine ( p = 0.0007), and worse estimated glomerular filtration rate ( p = 0.0007). The C1/C2 group also had higher proportions of patients in whom the biopsy specimen was classified as E1 ( p = 0.009), S1 ( p = 0.001), or T1/T2 ( p = 0.03), In addition, the mean follow-up period was shorter in the C1/C2 group ( p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the composite outcome was observed in a greater proportion of patients and in a shorter length of time in the C1/C2 group than in the C0 group ( p = 0.002 and p = 0.0014, respectively). In a Cox regression analysis, the independent risk factors for the composite outcome had Oxford classifications of S1, T1/T2, and C1/C2. Conclusion: Oxford classification findings of S1, T1/T2, or C1/C2 were independent risk factors for the composite outcome, corroborating previous studies.