Júlio C de Almeida , 1 , Clodoaldo L Alves 1 , Luiz Carlos de Abreu 1 , Monica A Sato 1 , Fernando L Fonseca 1 , Carlos B de Mello Monteiro 2 , Luiz Carlos M Vanderlei 3 , Hugo Macedo Jr 1 , Carlos M Tavares 4 , Dafne Herrero 1 , Luciano MR Rodrigues 1 , Vitor E Valenti 1 , 5
7 February 2012
In this minireview we describe the involvement of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in cardiovascular pathophysiology and exercise. The ANP has a broad homeostatic role and exerts complex effects on the cardio-circulatory hemodynamics, it is produced by the left atrium and has a key role in regulating sodium and water balance in mammals and humans. The dominant stimulus for its release is atrial wall tension, commonly caused by exercise. The ANP is involved in the process of lipolysis through a cGMP signaling pathway and, as a consequence, reducing blood pressure by decreasing the sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle to the action of vasoconstrictors and regulate fluid balance. The increase of this hormone is associated with better survival in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). This minireview provides new evidence based on recent studies related to the beneficial effects of exercise in patients with cardiovascular disease, focusing on the ANP.