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      Evaluation of Short Stature, Carbohydrate Metabolism and Other Endocrinopathies in Bloom’s Syndrome

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          Aims: To obtain an understanding of the etiology of proportional dwarfism and endocrinopathies of Bloom’s syndrome (BS). Methods: Admission for 5-day periods to an NIH-supported Clinical Research Center of a randomly selected population of persons with BS (n = 11; mean age 11.5 years, range 9 months to 28.5 years) for clinical and genetic history-taking, physical examination, and endocrinological, gastroenterological and immunological testing. Results: An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in all participants. Impaired glucose tolerance was present in 4 individuals, insulin resistance was observed in 6 individuals, and previously unrecognized diabetes was found in 1. Growth hormone provocation was normal in the 10 individuals tested. Overnight frequent GH sampling was suggestive of neurosecretory dysfunction in 3. Compensated hypothyroidism was found in 2 participants. Lipid profile abnormalities were present in 5 of 10 individuals. Low immunoglobulin concentrations (IgG and/or IgM) were seen in all tested. Intestinal absorption by D-xylose and/or fecal fat measurement was normal in all individuals tested as well. Conclusion: Altered carbohydrate metabolism is very common in BS, and is present from childhood. BS dwarfism is not related to growth hormone deficiency or malabsorption. The basis for the growth restriction in BS remains to be elucidated.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Premature birth and later insulin resistance.

          Term infants who are small for gestational age appear prone to the development of insulin resistance during childhood. We hypothesized that insulin resistance, a marker of type 2 diabetes mellitus, would be prevalent among children who had been born prematurely, irrespective of whether they were appropriate for gestational age or small for gestational age. Seventy-two healthy prepubertal children 4 to 10 years of age were studied: 50 who had been born prematurely (32 weeks' gestation or less), including 38 with a birth weight that was appropriate for gestational age (above the 10th percentile) and 12 with a birth weight that was low (i.e., who were small) for gestational age, and 22 control subjects (at least 37 weeks' gestation, with a birth weight above the 10th percentile). Insulin sensitivity was measured with the use of paired insulin and glucose data obtained by frequent measurements during intravenous glucose-tolerance tests. Children who had been born prematurely, whether their weight was appropriate or low for gestational age, had an isolated reduction in insulin sensitivity as compared with controls (appropriate-for-gestational-age group, 14.2x10(-4) per minute per milliunit per liter [95 percent confidence interval, 11.5 to 16.2]; small-for-gestational-age group, 12.9x10(-4) per minute per milliunit per liter [95 percent confidence interval, 9.7 to 17.4]; and control group, 21.6x10(-4) per minute per milliunit per liter [95 percent confidence interval, 17.1 to 27.4]; P=0.002). There were no significant differences in insulin sensitivity between the two premature groups (P=0.80). As compared with controls, both groups of premature children had a compensatory increase in acute insulin release (appropriate-for-gestational-age group, 2002 pmol per liter [95 percent confidence interval, 1434 to 2432] [corrected]; small-for-gestational-age group, 2253 pmol per liter [95 percent confidence interval, 1622 to 3128]; and control group, 1148 pmol per liter [95 percent confidence interval, 875 to 1500]; P<0.001). Like children who were born at term but who were small for gestational age, children who were born prematurely have an isolated reduction in insulin sensitivity, which may be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

             Jack L. Leahy (2015)
            The pathological sequence for type 2 diabetes is complex and entails many different elements that act in concert to cause that disease. This review proposes a sequence of events and how they interact by a careful analysis of the human and animal model literature. A genetic predisposition must exist, although to date very little is known about specific genetic defects in this disease. Whether the diabetes phenotype will occur depends on many environmental factors that share an ability to stress the glucose homeostasis system, with the current explosion of obesity and sedentary lifestyle being a major cause of the worldwide diabetes epidemic. We also propose that a lowered beta-cell mass either through genetic and/or beta-cell cytotoxic factors predisposes for glucose intolerance. As the blood glucose level rises even a small amount above normal, then acquired defects in the glucose homeostasis system occur--initially to impair the beta cell's glucose responsiveness to meals by impairing the first phase insulin response--and cause the blood glucose level to rise into the range of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). This rise in blood glucose, now perhaps in concert with the excess fatty acids that are a typical feature of obesity and insulin resistance, cause additional deterioration in beta-cell function along with further insulin resistance, and the blood glucose levels rise to full-blown diabetes. This sequence also provides insight into how to better prevent or treat type 2 diabetes, by studying the molecular basis for the early defects, and developing targeted therapies against them.
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              Bloom Syndrome

               James German (1993)

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                August 2006
                11 August 2006
                : 66
                : 3
                : 111-117
                Department of Pediatrics, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York, N.Y., USA
                93826 Horm Res 2006;66:111–117
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 4, References: 22, Pages: 7
                Original Paper


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