Objectives: Peritonitis remains a principal cause of dropout in peritoneal dialysis (PD). The physiological host response to a peritoneal infection involves a rise in numbers of circulating leukocytes to the peritoneal cavity. We evaluated the effects of (1) conventional peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF), (2) bicarbonate-based PDF, low in glucose degradation products, and (3) non-glucose PDF on peritoneal leukocyte recruitment in response to an inflammatory stimulus using intravital microscopy. Methods: The visceral peritoneum was exposed to EBSS, conventional lactate-buffered and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered glucose-based PDF and three lactate-buffered non-glucose PDF – icodextrin, amino acid-based PDF and amino acid/glycerol-based PDF. The number of rolling, adhering and extravasated leukocytes and leukocyte rolling velocity was assessed at different time intervals after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results: Exposure to LPS dissolved in EBSS dramatically increased the number of rolling, adhering and extravasated leukocytes and decreased leukocyte rolling velocity. Conventional PDF completely abolished LPS-induced leukocyte recruitment. Bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDF only minimally affected the process of leukocyte recruitment, whereas icodextrin PDF resulted in partial inhibition of the immune response. The amino acid-based and the amino acid/glycerol-based PDF inhibited leukocyte recruitment to a similar extent as conventional PDF. Conclusions: Bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDF has superior biocompatibility towards peritoneal host defense, in spite of its high glucose concentrations. Lactate-buffered non-glucose containing PDF has substantial inhibitory effects on leukocyte recruitment, indicating that the bioincompatibility of high lactate concentrations and/or low pH may not be underestimated.