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      Internet addiction in Gulf countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          The prevalence of internet addiction (IA) varies widely in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (4%–82.6%). We aimed to assess the quality of IA studies from the GCC and pool their data to get an accurate estimate of the problem of IA in the region.

          Methods

          A systematic review of available studies was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials were systematically searched; studies conducted in GCC countries (i.e., Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) with a validated instrument for internet addiction assessment were eligible. Ten studies were eligible for the systematic review, all of which were included in the meta-analysis. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale was used for quality assessment.

          Results

          Nine out of ten of the included studies had either adolescent and/or young adult participants (age < 25). Two studies were of ‘good’ quality, six were of ‘satisfactory’ quality, and two were of ‘unsatisfactory’ quality. The pooled internet addiction prevalence was 33%; it was significantly higher among females than males (male = 24%, female = 48%, P = 0.05) and has significantly increased over time ( P < 0.05).

          Discussion and conclusions

          One in every three individuals in GCC countries was deemed to be addicted to the internet, according to Young's Internet Addiction Test. A root cause analysis focusing on family structure, environment, and religious practices is needed to identify modifiable risk factors.

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          Most cited references40

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          Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses.

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            Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement.

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              Internet Addiction: The Emergence of a New Clinical Disorder

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                2006
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                JBA
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                05 October 2021
                06 September 2021
                : 10
                : 3
                : 601-610
                Affiliations
                [1] College of Medicine, Sulaiman Al Rajhi University , P.O. Box 777, Bukairyah 51941, Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. E-mail: a.saquib@ 123456sr.edu.sa
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2021-4009
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2572-0592
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5862-7445
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6709-4019
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9504-5209
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2819-2839
                Article
                10.1556/2006.2021.00057
                8997198
                34491902
                c50234d8-e7be-4197-be4e-996d4c4d03f5
                © 2021 The Author(s)

                Open Access. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                History
                : 04 October 2020
                : 18 January 2021
                : 15 April 2021
                : 24 May 2021
                : 05 August 2021
                : 07 August 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 43, Pages: 10

                Medicine,Psychology,Social & Behavioral Sciences,Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                Gulf Cooperation Council,internet addiction,prevalence

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