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      Is Open Access

      Comparative Study of Gasless Transaxillary, Bilateral Axillo-Breast, Unilateral Axillo-Breast With Carbon Dioxide Insufflation, Retroauricular, and Transoral Vestibular Endoscopic Thyroidectomy Approaches at a Single Institution: A Retrospective Analysis and Lessons Learned

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          Abstract

          Objectives

          This study aimed to present our experiences with various approaches for endoscopic thyroidectomy (ET) and to offer lessons for choosing an approach.

          Methods

          The medical records of 701 patients who underwent ET via the transaxillary (TA), bilateral axillo-breast (BABA), unilateral axillo-breast with carbon dioxide insufflation (UABA), retroauricular (RA), or transoral vestibular (TO) approach between May 2008 and March 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Postoperative pain and cosmetic outcomes were evaluated using visual analog scales.

          Results

          The mean operative time of UABA was the shortest among the five approaches (TA, 194.65±51.13 minutes; BABA, 189.11±61.53 minutes; UABA, 118.62±30.23 minutes; RA, 168.22±45.63 minutes; TO, 196.10±40.19 minutes; P=0.02). BABA was the most painful approach, while TO was the least painful on postoperative day 1 (TA, 3.09±0.96; BABA, 3.59±0.92; UABA, 2.39±0.54; RA, 3.49±0.93; TO, 2.01±0.37; P=0.04) and day 3 (TA, 2.10±0.77; BABA, 2.59±0.88; UABA, 1.84±0.37; RA, 3.01±0.67; TO, 1.49±0.45; P=0.04). The TO group had the best cosmetic outcomes at 3 months (TA, 3.91±1.21; BABA, 4.52±1.13; UABA, 4.49±0.74; RA, 4.28±0.74; TO, 4.81±0.48; P=0.04).

          Conclusion

          We present a single-surgeon experience of five distinctive ET approaches and the lessons from each approach, together with a literature review. This data may aid endoscopic thyroid surgeons in choosing from various ET approaches.

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          Most cited references37

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          The patient and observer scar assessment scale: a reliable and feasible tool for scar evaluation.

          At present, various scar assessment scales are available, but not one has been shown to be reliable, consistent, feasible, and valid at the same time. Furthermore, the existing scar assessment scales appear to attach little weight to the opinion of the patient. The newly developed Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale consists of two numeric scales: the Patient Scar Assessment Scale (patient scale) and the Observer Scar Assessment Scale (observer scale). The patient and observer scales have to be completed by the patient and the observer, respectively. The patient scale's consistency and the observer scale's consistency, reliability, and feasibility were tested. For the Vancouver Scar Scale, which is the most frequently used scar assessment scale at present, the same statistical measurements were examined and the results of the observer scale and the Vancouver scale were compared. The concurrent validity of the observer scale was tested with a correlation to the Vancouver scale. Furthermore, the authors examined which specific characteristics significantly influence the general opinion of the patient and the observers on the scar areas. Four independent observers have each used the observer scale and the Vancouver scale to assess 49 burn scar areas of 3 x 3 cm belonging to 20 different patients. Subsequently, the patients completed the patient scale for their scar areas. The (internal) consistency of both the patient and the observer scales was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha, 0.76 and 0.69, respectively), whereas the consistency of the Vancouver scale appeared not to be acceptable (alpha, 0.49). The reliability of the observer scale completed by a single observer was acceptable (r = 0.73). The reliability of the Vancouver scale completed by a single observer was lower (r = 0.69). The observer scale showed better agreement than the Vancouver scale because the coefficient of variation was lower (18 percent and 22 percent, respectively). The concurrent validity of the observer scale in relation to the Vancouver scale is high (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). Linear regression of the general opinions on scars of the observer and the patient showed that the observer's opinion is influenced by vascularization, thickness, pigmentation, and relief, whereas the patient's opinion is mainly influenced by itching and the thickness of the scar. Such an impact of itching and thickness of the scar on the patient's opinion is an important and novel finding. The Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale offers a suitable, reliable, and complete scar evaluation tool.
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            Safety and Outcomes of the Transoral Endoscopic Thyroidectomy Vestibular Approach

            Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery thyroidectomy is a novel approach to avoid surgical scars.
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              Transoral Endoscopic Thyroidectomy Vestibular Approach: A Series of the First 60 Human Cases.

              Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery has been adopted for thyroid surgery because of its potential for scar-free operation. However, the previous technique still has some limitations. Thus, we present our initial experience in transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol
                Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol
                CEO
                Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
                Korean Society of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
                1976-8710
                2005-0720
                August 2022
                4 May 2022
                : 15
                : 3
                : 283-291
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul, Korea
                [2 ]Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Center for Thyroid Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Myung-Chul Lee Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 01812, Korea Tel: +82-2-970-2358, Fax: +82-2-970-2450 E-mail: entdok@ 123456gmail.com
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2574-4976
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2029-6243
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9680-3873
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4149-273X
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6730-6755
                Article
                ceo-2021-02285
                10.21053/ceo.2021.02285
                9441504
                35538719
                c50a0073-d5c5-43d6-92c1-95e70caef0dd
                Copyright © 2022 by Korean Society of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 28 December 2021
                : 8 April 2022
                : 11 April 2022
                Categories
                Original Article

                Otolaryngology
                thyroidectomy,thyroid neoplasm,carcinoma,endoscopy
                Otolaryngology
                thyroidectomy, thyroid neoplasm, carcinoma, endoscopy

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