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      Exercise-Induced Human Coronary Collateral Function: Quantitative Assessment during Acute Coronary Occlusions

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          Abstract

          In 50 patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty because of chronic angina pectoris, a collateral flow index (CFI) was determined at the start and the end of two 1-min coronary occlusions, randomly accompanied by a resting state or a 3-min dynamic handgrip exercise (DHE). CFI expressing collateral flow relative to normal antegrade flow was determined by simultaneous coronary occlusive pressure, mean aortic pressure and central venous pressure measurements. When comparing CFI without and with DHE at the start as well as at the end of balloon occlusions, a significant increase was observed with DHE (overall p < 0.0001); start: 0.18 ± 0.12 vs. 0.22 ± 0.13, respectively (p = 0.01); end of occlusion: 0.21 ± 0.14 vs. 0.25 ± 0.14, respectively (p = 0.007).

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          Most cited references 8

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          Coronary collateral quantitation in patients with coronary artery disease using intravascular flow velocity or pressure measurements.

          This study evaluated two methods for the quantitative measurement of collaterals using intracoronary (IC) blood flow velocity or pressure measurements. The extent of myocardial necrosis after coronary artery occlusion is substantially influenced by the collateral circulation. So far, qualitative methods have been available to assess the human coronary collateral circulation, thus restraining the conclusive investigation of, for example, therapies to promote collateral development. Fifty-one patients with a coronary artery stenosis to be treated by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) were investigated using IC PTCA guidewire-based Doppler and pressure sensors positioned distal to the stenosis. Simultaneous measurements of aortic pressure, IC velocity and pressure distal to the stenosis during and after PTCA provided the variables for calculating collateral flow indices (CFIv and CFIp) that express collateral flow as a fraction of flow via the patent vessel. Both CFIv and CFIp were compared with conventional methods for collateral assessment, among them ST-segment changes >1 mm on IC and surface electrocardiogram (ECG) at PTCA. Also, CFIv and CFIp were compared with each other. In 11 patients without ECG signs of ischemia during PTCA (sufficient collaterals), relative collateral flow amounted to 46% as determined by Doppler and pressure wire. Patients with insufficient collaterals (n=40) had relative collateral flow values of 18%. Using a threshold of CFI=30%, sufficient and insufficient collaterals could be diagnosed with 100% sensitivity and 93% specificity by IC Doppler, and 75% sensitivity and 92% specificity by IC pressure measurements. The agreement between Doppler and pressure measurements was good: CFIv=0.08 + 0.8 CFIp, r=0.80, p=0.0001. Intracoronary flow velocity or pressure measurements during routine PTCA represent an accurate and, at last, quantitative method for assessing the coronary collateral circulation in humans.
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            Coronary collateral circulation: Clinical significance and influence on survival in patients with coronary artery occlusion

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              Studies on the relation of the clinical manifestations of angina pectoris, coronary thrombosis, and myocardial infarction to the pathologic findings

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2003
                October 2003
                17 October 2003
                : 100
                : 2
                : 53-60
                Affiliations
                Swiss Cardiovascular Center Bern, University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland
                Article
                73039 Cardiology 2003;100:53–60
                10.1159/000073039
                14557690
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 31, Pages: 8
                Categories
                General Cardiology

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