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      A new Changhsingian (Late Permian) brachiopod fauna from the Zhongzhai section (South China), Part 2: Lingulida, Orthida, Orthotetida and Spiriferida

      , , , ,
      Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology
      Informa UK Limited

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          A kinetic model of Phanerozoic taxonomic diversity. III. Post-Paleozoic families and mass extinctions

          A three-phase kinetic model with time-specific perturbations is used to describe large-scale patterns in the diversification of Phanerozoic marine families. The basic model assumes that the Cambrian, Paleozoic, and Modern evolutionary faunas each diversified logistically as a consequence of early exponential growth and of later slowing of growth as the ecosystems became filled; it also assumes interaction among the evolutionary faunas such that expansion of the combined diversities of all three faunas above any single fauna's equilibrium caused that fauna's diversity to begin to decline. This basic model adequately describes the diversification of the evolutionary faunas through the Paleozoic Era as well as the asymmetrical rise and fall of background extinction rates through the entire Phanerozoic. Declines in diversity and changes in faunal dominance associated with mass extinctions can be accommodated in the model with short-term accelerations in extinction rates or declines in equilibria. Such accelerations, or perturbations, cause diversity to decline exponentially and then to rebound sigmoidally following release. The amount of decline is dependent on the magnitude and duration of the perturbation, the timing of the perturbation with respect to the diversification of the system, and the system's initial per-taxon rates of diversification and turnover. When applied to the three-phase model, such perturbations describe the changes in diversity and faunal dominance during and after major mass extinctions, the long-term rise in total diversity following the Late Permian and Norian mass extinctions, and the peculiar diversification and then decline of the remnants of the Paleozoic fauna during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras. The good fit of this model to data on Phanerozoic familial diversity suggests that many of the large-scale patterns of diversification seen in the marine fossil record of animal families are simple consequences of nonlinear interrelationships among a small number of parameters that are intrinsic to the evolutionary faunas and are largely (but not completely) invariant through time.
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            Calibrating the end-Permian mass extinction.

            The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe biodiversity crisis in Earth history. To better constrain the timing, and ultimately the causes of this event, we collected a suite of geochronologic, isotopic, and biostratigraphic data on several well-preserved sedimentary sections in South China. High-precision U-Pb dating reveals that the extinction peak occurred just before 252.28 ± 0.08 million years ago, after a decline of 2 per mil (‰) in δ(13)C over 90,000 years, and coincided with a δ(13)C excursion of -5‰ that is estimated to have lasted ≤20,000 years. The extinction interval was less than 200,000 years and synchronous in marine and terrestrial realms; associated charcoal-rich and soot-bearing layers indicate widespread wildfires on land. A massive release of thermogenic carbon dioxide and/or methane may have caused the catastrophic extinction.
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              A Supra-Ordinal Classification of the Brachiopoda

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology
                Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology
                Informa UK Limited
                0311-5518
                1752-0754
                October 21 2014
                October 02 2014
                May 19 2014
                October 02 2014
                : 38
                : 4
                : 480-503
                Article
                10.1080/03115518.2014.906167
                c50eab19-e2f8-4ad5-b92b-c84e937667f9
                © 2014
                History

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