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A Model of Dormant-Emergent Metastatic Breast Cancer Progression Enabling Exploration of Biomarker Signatures

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      Most cited references 53

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      The gut microbiota shapes intestinal immune responses during health and disease.

      Immunological dysregulation is the cause of many non-infectious human diseases such as autoimmunity, allergy and cancer. The gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of interaction between the host immune system and microorganisms, both symbiotic and pathogenic. In this Review we discuss findings indicating that developmental aspects of the adaptive immune system are influenced by bacterial colonization of the gut. We also highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host-symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function. Finally, we present recent evidence to support that disturbances in the bacterial microbiota result in dysregulation of adaptive immune cells, and this may underlie disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. This raises the possibility that the mammalian immune system, which seems to be designed to control microorganisms, is in fact controlled by microorganisms.
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        Is Open Access

        Revised Estimates for the Number of Human and Bacteria Cells in the Body

        Reported values in the literature on the number of cells in the body differ by orders of magnitude and are very seldom supported by any measurements or calculations. Here, we integrate the most up-to-date information on the number of human and bacterial cells in the body. We estimate the total number of bacteria in the 70 kg "reference man" to be 3.8·1013. For human cells, we identify the dominant role of the hematopoietic lineage to the total count (≈90%) and revise past estimates to 3.0·1013 human cells. Our analysis also updates the widely-cited 10:1 ratio, showing that the number of bacteria in the body is actually of the same order as the number of human cells, and their total mass is about 0.2 kg.
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          Systemic spread is an early step in breast cancer.

          It is widely accepted that metastasis is a late event in cancer progression. Here, however, we show that tumor cells can disseminate systemically from earliest epithelial alterations in HER-2 and PyMT transgenic mice and from ductal carcinoma in situ in women. Wild-type mice transplanted with single premalignant HER-2 transgenic glands displayed disseminated tumor cells and micrometastasis in bone marrow and lungs. The number of disseminated cancer cells and their karyotypic abnormalities were similar for small and large tumors in patients and mouse models. When activated by bone marrow transplantation into wild-type recipients, 80 early-disseminated cancer cells sufficed to induce lethal carcinosis. Therefore, release from dormancy of early-disseminated cancer cells may frequently account for metachronous metastasis.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
            Mol Cell Proteomics
            American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB)
            1535-9476
            1535-9484
            April 01 2018
            April 2018
            April 2018
            January 20 2018
            : 17
            : 4
            : 619-630
            10.1074/mcp.RA117.000370
            © 2018

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