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      A Synergistic Effect of a Daily Supplement for 1 Month of 200 mg Magnesium plus 50 mg Vitamin B6 for the Relief of Anxiety-Related Premenstrual Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Study

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      Journal of Women's Health & Gender-Based Medicine
      Mary Ann Liebert Inc

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          Abstract

          To investigate single and combined effects of daily dietary supplementation with 50 mg of vitamin B6 and 200 mg magnesium (as MgO) for one cycle for the relief of mild premenstrual symptoms, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design was used. Forty-four women with an average age of 32 years took part in the study. Each woman was randomly assigned, according to a Latin square design, to take consecutively all four of the following treatments daily for one menstrual cycle: (1) 200 mg Mg, (2) 50 mg vitamin B6, (3) 200 mg Mg + 50 mg vitamin B6 and (4) placebo. Throughout the study, each volunteer kept a daily record of symptoms using a 5-point ordinal scale in a menstrual diary of 30 symptoms. Symptoms were grouped into six categories: anxiety, craving, depression, hydration, other, and total. Urinary magnesium output for 24 hours was estimated using the Mg/creatinine concentration ratio. ANOVA showed no overall difference between individual treatments, but predefined treatment comparisons using factorial contrasts in ANOVA showed a significant effect of 200 mg/day Mg + 50 mg/day vitamin B6 on reducing anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms (nervous tension, mood swings, irritability, or anxiety) (p = 0.040). Urinary Mg output was not affected by treatment. A small synergistic effect of a daily dietary supplementation with a combination of Mg + vitamin B6 in the reduction of mild premenstrual anxiety-related symptoms was demonstrated during treatment of 44 women for one menstrual cycle. In view of the modest effect found, further studies are needed before making general recommendations for the treatment of premenstrual symptoms. The study indicated that absorption from MgO was poor and daily supplementation for longer than 1 month is necessary for tissue repletion.

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          Most cited references6

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          Characteristics of pyridoxine overdose neuropathy syndrome.

          A newly recognised neurotoxic syndrome due to pyridoxine (B6) overdose is described. It is the largest series of B6 intoxication hitherto reported. A raised serum B6 level was present in 172 women of whom 60% had neurological symptoms, which disappeared when B6 was withdrawn and reappeared in 4 cases when B6 was restarted. The mean dose of B6 in the 103 women with neurological symptoms was 117 +/- 92 mgs, compared with 116.2 +/- 66 mgs in the control group. There was a significant difference (P less than 0.01) in the average duration of ingestion of B6 in the neurotoxic group of 2.9 +/- 1.9 years compared with 1.6 +/- 2.1 years in controls. The symptoms were paraesthesia, hyperaesthesia, bone pains, muscle weakness, numbness and fasciculation, most marked on the extremities and predominantly bilateral unless there was a history of previous trauma to the limb. These women were taking a lower dose of B6 than previously described (1,2), which may account for the complete recovery within 6 months of stopping B6.
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            Magnesium bioavailability from magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide.

            This study compared magnesium oxide and magnesium citrate with respect to in vitro solubility and in vivo gastrointestinal absorbability. The solubility of 25 mmol magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide was examined in vitro in solutions containing varying amounts of hydrochloric acid (0-24.2 mEq) in 300 ml distilled water intended to mimic achlorhydric to peak acid secretory states. Magnesium oxide was virtually insoluble in water and only 43% soluble in simulated peak acid secretion (24.2 mEq hydrochloric acid/300 ml). Magnesium citrate had high solubility even in water (55%) and was substantially more soluble than magnesium oxide in all states of acid secretion. Reprecipitation of magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide did not occur when the filtrates from the solubility studies were titrated to pH 6 and 7 to stimulate pancreatic bicarbonate secretion. Approximately 65% of magnesium citrate was complexed as soluble magnesium citrate, whereas magnesium complexation was not present in the magnesium oxide system. Magnesium absorption from the two magnesium salts was measured in vivo in normal volunteers by assessing the rise in urinary magnesium following oral magnesium load. The increment in urinary magnesium following magnesium citrate load (25 mmol) was significantly higher than that obtained from magnesium oxide load (during 4 hours post-load, 0.22 vs 0.006 mg/mg creatinine, p less than 0.05; during second 2 hours post-load, 0.035 vs 0.008 mg/mg creatinine, p less than 0.05). Thus, magnesium citrate was more soluble and bioavailable than magnesium oxide.
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              Factors related to self-reporting of the pre-menstrual syndrome.

              Menstrual health questionnaires were completed by a self-selected sample of the readership of a woman's magazine (n = 5457). Sixty-one per cent of subjects described themselves as suffering from pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS) and this was largely corroborated by ratings of symptoms pre-menstrually, menstrually and post-menstrually for the most recent cycle. Mood symptoms were more strongly implicated than physical ones. Self-report of PMS was found to be modestly associated with aspects of parity and oral contraceptive use, but strongly and positively related to the duration of 'natural' menstrual cycles (i.e. uninterrupted by pregnancy or steroidal contraception) and to psychosocial stress. There were interactions among psychosocial factors and between psychosocial load and duration of natural cycles.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Women's Health & Gender-Based Medicine
                Journal of Women's Health & Gender-Based Medicine
                Mary Ann Liebert Inc
                1524-6094
                March 2000
                March 2000
                : 9
                : 2
                : 131-139
                Article
                10.1089/152460900318623
                10746516
                c53b565c-c32c-408b-8956-45c68e3f6e85
                © 2000

                http://www.liebertpub.com/nv/resources-tools/text-and-data-mining-policy/121/

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