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      Global Stroke Statistics 2019

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          Data on stroke epidemiology and availability of hospital-based stroke services around the world are important for guiding policy decisions and healthcare planning.


          To provide the most current incidence, mortality and case–fatality data on stroke and describe current availability of stroke units around the world by country.


          We searched multiple databases (based on our existing search strategy) to identify new original manuscripts and review articles published between 1 June 2016 and 31 October 2018 that met the ideal criteria for data on stroke incidence and case–fatality. For data on the availability of hospital-based stroke services, we searched PubMed for all literature published up until 31 June 2018. We further screened reference lists, citation history of manuscripts and gray literature for this information. Mortality codes for International Classification of Diseases-9 and International Classification of Diseases-10 were extracted from the World Health Organization mortality database for each country providing these data. Population denominators were obtained from the World Health Organization, and when these were unavailable within a two-year period of mortality data, population denominators within a two-year period were obtained from the United Nations. Using country-specific population denominators and the most recent years of mortality data available for each country, we calculated both the crude mortality from stroke and mortality adjusted to the World Health Organization world population.


          Since our last report in 2017, there were two countries with new incidence studies, China ( n = 1) and India ( n = 2) that met the ideal criteria. New data on case–fatality were found for Estonia and India. The most current mortality data were available for the year 2015 (39 countries), 2016 (43 countries), and 2017 (7 countries). No new data on mortality were available for six countries. Availability of stroke units was noted for 63 countries, and the proportion of patients treated in stroke units was reported for 35/63 countries.


          Up-to-date data on stroke incidence, case–fatality, and mortality statistics provide evidence of variation among countries and changing magnitudes of burden among high and low–middle income countries. Reporting of hospital-based stroke units remains limited and should be encouraged.

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          Most cited references54

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          Global stroke statistics.

          Background Up to date data on incidence, mortality, and case-fatality for stroke are important for setting the agenda for prevention and healthcare. Aims and/or hypothesis We aim to update the most current incidence and mortality data on stroke available by country, and to expand the scope to case-fatality and explore how registry data might be complementary. Methods Data were compiled using two approaches: (1) an updated literature review building from our previous review and (2) direct acquisition and analysis of stroke events in the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database for each country providing these data. To assess new and/or updated data on incidence, we searched multiple databases to identify new original papers and review articles that met ideal criteria for stroke incidence studies and were published between 15 May 2013 and 31 May 2016. For data on case-fatality, we searched between 1980 and 31 May 2016. We further screened reference lists and citation history of papers to identify other studies not obtained from these sources. Mortality codes for ICD-8, ICD-9, and ICD-10 were extracted. Using population denominators provided for each country, we calculated both the crude mortality from stroke and mortality adjusted to the WHO world population. We used only the most recent year reported to the WHO for which both population and mortality data were available. Results Fifty-one countries had data on stroke incidence, some with data over many time periods, and some with data in more than one region. Since our last review, there were new incidence studies from 12 countries, with four meeting pre-determined quality criteria. In these four studies, the incidence of stroke, adjusted to the WHO World standard population, ranged from 76 per 100,000 population per year in Australia (2009-10) up to 119 per 100,000 population per year in New Zealand (2011-12), with the latter being in those aged at least 15 years. Only in Martinique (2011-12) was the incidence of stroke greater in women than men. In countries either lacking or with old data on stroke incidence, eight had national clinical registries of hospital based data. Of the 128 countries reporting mortality data to the WHO, crude mortality was greatest in Kazhakstan (in 2003), Bulgaria, and Greece. Crude mortality and crude incidence of stroke were both positively correlated with the proportion of the population aged ≥ 65 years, but not with time. Data on case-fatality were available in 42 studies in 22 countries, with large variations between regions. Conclusions In this updated review, we describe the current data on stroke incidence, case-fatality and mortality in different countries, and highlight the growing trend for national clinical registries to provide estimates in lieu of community-based incidence studies.
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            Incidence and trends of stroke and its subtypes in China: results from three large cities.

            To examine the incidence and trends of stroke and its major subtypes during the 1990s in 3 cities in China. Stroke cases registered between 1991 to 2000 were initially identified through the stroke surveillance networks established in Beijing, Shanghai, and Changsha, and then confirmed by neurologists. The age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 person years of overall first-ever stroke were 135.0 (95% CI, 126.5 to 144.6) in Beijing, 76.1 (70.6 to 82.6) in Shanghai, and 150.0 (141.3 to 160.0) in Changsha during the 1990s. Incidence of ischemic stroke (IS) was highest in Beijing, followed by Changsha and Shanghai; for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the highest rate was found in Changsha, followed by Beijing and Shanghai. The same order as ICH was also observed for subarachnoid hemorrhage. The age-adjusted incidence of overall stroke and ICH for individuals > or =55 years of age in our populations was generally higher than that from Western populations. During the 1990s, ICH incidence decreased significantly at a rate of 12.0% per year in Beijing, 4.4% in Shanghai, and 7.7% in Changsha; in contrast, except for Changsha, IS incidence increased in Beijing (5.0% per year) and Shanghai (7.7%). There is a geographic variation in the incidence of stroke and its subtypes among these 3 cities, but the incidence of overall and hemorrhagic stroke in China is generally higher than that in the Western countries. Interestingly, the decrease in ICH and increase in IS during the past decade may reflect some underlying changes of risk factors in Chinese populations.
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              Excessive incidence of stroke in Iran: evidence from the Mashhad Stroke Incidence Study (MSIS), a population-based study of stroke in the Middle East.

              The epidemiology of stroke and its subtypes in the Middle East is unclear. Most previous studies have been performed in Western countries, and incidence rates are unlikely to apply in the Middle East. We aimed to determine the incidence of stroke in Mashhad, northeastern Iran. During a 12-month period (2006-2007), we prospectively ascertained all strokes occurring in a population of 450 229. Multiple overlapping sources were used to identify people with stroke. A large number of volunteers assisted in finding stroke patients not admitted to hospital. Potential cases were reviewed by a group of stroke experts before inclusion. A total of 624 first-ever strokes occurred during the study period, 98.4% undergoing imaging. Despite a relatively low crude annual incidence rate of first-ever stroke FES (139; 95% CI, 128 to 149) per 100 000 residents, rates adjusted to the European population aged 45 to 84 years were higher than in most other countries: 616 (95% CI, 567 to 664) for ischemic stroke, 94 (95% CI, 75 to 113) for intracerebral hemorrhage, and 12 (95% CI, 5 to 19) for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Age-specific stroke incidence was higher in younger patients than is typically seen in Western countries. Comparison of age-specific incidence rates between regions revealed that stroke in Mashhad occurs approximately 1 decade earlier than in Western countries. The results of this study provide evidence that the incidence of stroke in Iran is considerably greater than in most Western countries, with stroke occurring at younger ages. Ischemic stroke incidence was also considerably greater than reported in other regions.

                Author and article information

                International Journal of Stroke
                International Journal of Stroke
                SAGE Publications
                March 09 2020
                : 174749302090954
                [1 ]Stroke and Ageing Research, Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
                [2 ]The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
                [3 ]Melbourne Brain Centre, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
                [4 ]Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
                [5 ]Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
                [6 ]Wolfson Centre for Prevention of Stroke and Dementia, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
                [7 ]National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
                [8 ]Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Neurology, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
                [9 ]Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
                [10 ]Department of Neurology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, India
                [11 ]Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
                © 2020



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