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      New Cantharellus species from South Korea

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          In this third contribution involving new Cantharellus species from South Korea, two new species are introduced. In addition, we document a first report of the recently described Japanese Cantharellus anzutake outside of Japan based on identical ITS sequence data. Cantharellus citrinus sp. nov. is introduced as a new member of subgenus Cinnabarini , to which the closely related Korean C. albovenosus and Chinese C. phloginus also belong. Cantharellus curvatus sp. nov. is introduced as a new member of subgenus Parvocantharellus , in which the Korean C. koreanus was recently placed. The respective placements of the new taxa are significantly supported by a phylogenetic analysis of sequences from the transcription elongation factor ( tef-1).

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          A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood.

          The increase in the number of large data sets and the complexity of current probabilistic sequence evolution models necessitates fast and reliable phylogeny reconstruction methods. We describe a new approach, based on the maximum- likelihood principle, which clearly satisfies these requirements. The core of this method is a simple hill-climbing algorithm that adjusts tree topology and branch lengths simultaneously. This algorithm starts from an initial tree built by a fast distance-based method and modifies this tree to improve its likelihood at each iteration. Due to this simultaneous adjustment of the topology and branch lengths, only a few iterations are sufficient to reach an optimum. We used extensive and realistic computer simulations to show that the topological accuracy of this new method is at least as high as that of the existing maximum-likelihood programs and much higher than the performance of distance-based and parsimony approaches. The reduction of computing time is dramatic in comparison with other maximum-likelihood packages, while the likelihood maximization ability tends to be higher. For example, only 12 min were required on a standard personal computer to analyze a data set consisting of 500 rbcL sequences with 1,428 base pairs from plant plastids, thus reaching a speed of the same order as some popular distance-based and parsimony algorithms. This new method is implemented in the PHYML program, which is freely available on our web page: http://www.lirmm.fr/w3ifa/MAAS/.
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            Model selection may not be a mandatory step for phylogeny reconstruction

            Determining the most suitable model for phylogeny reconstruction constitutes a fundamental step in numerous evolutionary studies. Over the years, various criteria for model selection have been proposed, leading to debate over which criterion is preferable. However, the necessity of this procedure has not been questioned to date. Here, we demonstrate that although incongruency regarding the selected model is frequent over empirical and simulated data, all criteria lead to very similar inferences. When topologies and ancestral sequence reconstruction are the desired output, choosing one criterion over another is not crucial. Moreover, skipping model selection and using instead the most parameter-rich model, GTR+I+G, leads to similar inferences, thus rendering this time-consuming step nonessential, at least under current strategies of model selection.
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              Fungal diversity notes 111–252—taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa


                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                22 December 2020
                : 76
                : 31-47
                [1 ] Institut de Systématique, Écologie, Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE, 57 rue Cuvier, CP 39, F-75005, Paris, France Muséum national d’histoire naturelle Paris France
                [2 ] Département fédéral de l’économie, de la formation et de la recherche DEFR, Agroscope Domaine de recherche Protection des végétaux, Route de Duillier 60, CP 1012, 1260, Nyon 1, Switzerland Agroscope Domaine de recherche Protection des végétaux Nyon Swaziland
                [3 ] Department of Forest Bioresources, National Institute of Forest Science, Suwon 16631, South Korea National Institute of Forest Science Suwon South Korea
                [4 ] Department of Botany, Moravian Museum, Zelný trh 6, CZ-659 37, Brno, Czech Republic Moravian Museum Brno Czech Republic
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Vladimír Antonín ( vantonin@ 123456mzm.cz )

                Academic editor: B-K Cui

                Bart Buyck, Valérie Hofstetter, Rhim Ryoo, Kang-Hyeon Ka, Vladimír Antonín

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Research Article

                tef-1, its, morphology, new species, phylogeny


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