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      Effect of far-infrared radiation on inhibition of colonies on packaging during storage of sterilised surgical instruments

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          Abstract

          The sterilisation of surgical instruments is a major factor in infection control in the operating room (OR). All items used in the OR must be sterile for patient safety. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effect of far-infrared radiation (FIR) on the inhibition of colonies on packaging surface during the long-term storage of sterilised surgical instruments. From September 2021 to July 2022, 68.2% of 85 packages without FIR treatment showed microbial growth after incubation at 35 °C for 30 days and at room temperature for 5 days. A total of 34 bacterial species were identified, with the number of colonies increasing over time. In total, 130 colony-forming units were observed. The main microorganisms detected were Staphylococcus spp. (35%) and Bacillus spp. (21%) , Kocuria marina and Lactobacillus spp. (14%), and mould (5%). No colonies were found in 72 packages treated with FIR in the OR. Even after sterilisation, microbial growth can occur due to movement of the packages by staff, sweeping of floors, lack of high-efficiency particulate air filtration, high humidity, and inadequate hand hygiene. Thus, safe and simple far-infrared devices that allow continuous disinfection for storage spaces, as well as temperature and humidity control, help to reduce microorganisms in the OR.

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          Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications.

          Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3-100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3- 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects.
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            Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy vs. Far-Infrared vs. Passive Modalities on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly-Trained Runners

            Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities.
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              Environmental controls in operating theatres.

              Surgical-site infection is the leading complication of surgery. Normal skin flora of patients or healthcare workers causes more than half all infections following clean surgery, but the importance of airborne bacteria in this setting remains controversial. Modern operating theatres have conventional plenum ventilation with filtered air where particles >/=5 microm are removed. For orthopaedic and other implant surgery, laminar-flow systems are used with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters where particles >/=0.3 microm are removed. The use of ultra-clean air has been shown to reduce infection rates significantly in orthopaedic implant surgery. Few countries have set bacterial threshold limits for conventionally ventilated operating rooms, although most recommend 20 air changes per hour to obtain 50-150 colony forming units/m(3) of air. There are no standardized methods for bacterial air sampling or its frequency. With the use of HEPA filters in operating theatre ventilation, there is a tendency to apply cleanroom technology standards used in industry for hospitals. These are based on measuring the presence of particles of varying sizes and numbers, and are better suited than bacterial sampling. Environmental bacterial sampling in operating theatres should be limited to investigation of epidemics, validation of protocols, or changes made in materials which could influence the microbial content. Copyright 2002 The Hospital Infection Society.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                daa37@tpech.gov.tw
                daw94@tpech.gov.tw
                ycsidney@gmail.com
                cm.chu.tw@gmail.com
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                25 May 2023
                25 May 2023
                2023
                : 13
                : 8490
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Nursing, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, 10684 Taiwan
                [2 ]GRID grid.412146.4, ISNI 0000 0004 0573 0416, Department of Nurse-Midwifery and Women Health, , National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, ; Taipei, 11220 Taiwan
                [3 ]GRID grid.260565.2, ISNI 0000 0004 0634 0356, School of Public Health, , National Defense Medical Center, ; Taipei, 11490 Taiwan
                [4 ]GRID grid.419832.5, ISNI 0000 0001 2167 1370, Univeraity of Taipei, ; Taipei, 10048 Taiwan
                [5 ]Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, 10341 Taiwan
                [6 ]GRID grid.256105.5, ISNI 0000 0004 1937 1063, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, , Fu Jen Catholic University, ; New Taipei City, 242062 Taiwan
                [7 ]Department of Inspection, Taipei City Hospital, Ren-Ai Branch, Taipei, 10629 Taiwan
                [8 ]GRID grid.260565.2, ISNI 0000 0004 0634 0356, Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, , National Defense Medical Center, ; Taipei, 11490 Taiwan
                [9 ]GRID grid.278244.f, ISNI 0000 0004 0638 9360, Department of Medical Research, , Tri-Service General Hospital, ; Taipei, 11490 Taiwan
                [10 ]GRID grid.412087.8, ISNI 0000 0001 0001 3889, Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, , National Taipei University of Technology (Taipei Tech), ; Taipei, 10608 Taiwan
                [11 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Taipei City Hospital, Ren-Ai Branch, Taipei, 10629 Taiwan
                [12 ]Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Taipei City Hospital, Ren-Ai Branch, Taipei, 10629 Taiwan
                Article
                35352
                10.1038/s41598-023-35352-9
                10212960
                37231027
                c5579762-c017-4e0d-8f49-1cd4db2fcccd
                © The Author(s) 2023

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 5 December 2022
                : 16 May 2023
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                © Springer Nature Limited 2023

                Uncategorized
                biological techniques,biotechnology
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                biological techniques, biotechnology

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