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      Psychometric properties of Persian version of the Caring Dimension Inventory (PCDI-25)

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          The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of Persian version of the 25-item Caring Dimension Inventory (CDI-25).

          Materials and Methods:

          A psychometric instrument validation study was designed. Content validity, internal consistency, and stability were confirmed. A total of 288 participants (143 nurses and 145 nursing students) were selected based on quota sampling approach.


          The PCDI-23 showed good test–retest (Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.89 for nursing students and 0.91 for nurses), internal consistency reliability (0.86), and acceptable face and construct validity. However, considering the results of analyses, excluding items 4 and 16 from the Persian version of the CDI is suggested.


          This instrument can be used to determine caring behaviors and nurses’ perceptions of the importance of caring behaviors among Persian language nurses.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Principles of Good Practice for the Translation and Cultural Adaptation Process for Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO) Measures: report of the ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation.

          In 1999, ISPOR formed the Quality of Life Special Interest group (QoL-SIG)--Translation and Cultural Adaptation group (TCA group) to stimulate discussion on and create guidelines and standards for the translation and cultural adaptation of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. After identifying a general lack of consistency in current methods and published guidelines, the TCA group saw a need to develop a holistic perspective that synthesized the full spectrum of published methods. This process resulted in the development of Translation and Cultural Adaptation of Patient Reported Outcomes Measures--Principles of Good Practice (PGP), a report on current methods, and an appraisal of their strengths and weaknesses. The TCA Group undertook a review of evidence from current practice, a review of the literature and existing guidelines, and consideration of the issues facing the pharmaceutical industry, regulators, and the broader outcomes research community. Each approach to translation and cultural adaptation was considered systematically in terms of rationale, components, key actors, and the potential benefits and risks associated with each approach and step. The results of this review were subjected to discussion and challenge within the TCA group, as well as consultation with the outcomes research community at large. Through this review, a consensus emerged on a broad approach, along with a detailed critique of the strengths and weaknesses of the differing methodologies. The results of this review are set out as "Translation and Cultural Adaptation of Patient Reported Outcomes Measures--Principles of Good Practice" and are reported in this document.
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            Is the CVI an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and recommendations.

            Nurse researchers typically provide evidence of content validity for instruments by computing a content validity index (CVI), based on experts' ratings of item relevance. We compared the CVI to alternative indexes and concluded that the widely-used CVI has advantages with regard to ease of computation, understandability, focus on agreement of relevance rather than agreement per se, focus on consensus rather than consistency, and provision of both item and scale information. One weakness is its failure to adjust for chance agreement. We solved this by translating item-level CVIs (I-CVIs) into values of a modified kappa statistic. Our translation suggests that items with an I-CVI of .78 or higher for three or more experts could be considered evidence of good content validity.
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              Leininger's theory of nursing: cultural care diversity and universality.

               M Leininger (1988)

                Author and article information

                Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res
                Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res
                Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Mar-Apr 2014
                : 19
                : 2
                : 173-179
                [1 ]Department of Nursing, IA University of Urmia Branch, Urmia, Iran
                [2 ]EDC of Urmia Medical Sciences University, Urmia, Iran
                [3 ]Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, IA University of Tehran-Medical Branch, Tehran, Iran
                [4 ]Department of Biostatistics, Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, IA University of Tehran - Medical Branch, Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Saleh Salimi, Nursing Department, IA University of Urmia Branch, Airport Road, Urmia, Iran. E-mail: salimitr@
                Copyright: © Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article


                validation studies, cdi-25, iran, nursing care, persian version


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