Genomic best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) is a statistical method that uses relationships between individuals calculated from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to capture relationships at quantitative trait loci (QTL). We show that genomic BLUP exploits not only linkage disequilibrium (LD) and additive-genetic relationships, but also cosegregation to capture relationships at QTL. Simulations were used to study the contributions of those types of information to accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs), their persistence over generations without retraining, and their effect on the correlation of GEBVs within families. We show that accuracy of GEBVs based on additive-genetic relationships can decline with increasing training data size and speculate that modeling polygenic effects via pedigree relationships jointly with genomic breeding values using Bayesian methods may prevent that decline. Cosegregation information from half sibs contributes little to accuracy of GEBVs in current dairy cattle breeding schemes but from full sibs it contributes considerably to accuracy within family in corn breeding. Cosegregation information also declines with increasing training data size, and its persistence over generations is lower than that of LD, suggesting the need to model LD and cosegregation explicitly. The correlation between GEBVs within families depends largely on additive-genetic relationship information, which is determined by the effective number of SNPs and training data size. As genomic BLUP cannot capture short-range LD information well, we recommend Bayesian methods with t-distributed priors.