Whether growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and/or treatment in childhood and adolescence influences cognitive outcome in children with GHD or girls with Turner syndrome (TS) is controversial. Previous studies also suggest that quality of life (QoL) is reduced in adults with GHD, particularly in the areas of social isolation and fatigue. Baseline QoL scores were significantly lower in patients with GHD than in the general population of the same age, gender, and nationality. Unfortunately, few data are available describing QoL in children with GHD. TS is a genetic disorder characterized by short stature, gonadal dysgenesis, and a particular neurocognitive profile of normally developed language abilities (particularly verbal intelligence quotients) and impaired visual-spatial and/or visual-perceptual abilities. This study evaluated the effects of GH treatment on neurocognitive function in girls with TS who were enrolled in a long-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of GH treatment on final adult height. Treatment duration ranged from 1 to 7 years. The major result of this study was the absence of GH treatment effects on cognitive function in girls with TS. GHD and/or treatment in childhood and adulthood influences cognitive and/or QoL outcomes in some but not all studies. This study did not support a role for GH in influencing the characteristic nonverbal neurocognitive deficits associated with TS. However, evaluation of QoL should be a part of the routine clinical management of patients with GHD or TS.