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      Coronary Surgery in Patients Requiring Chronic Hemodialysis

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          Background: In uremic patients coronary surgery and the entire perioperative management is demanding. Methods: We analyzed retrospectively data from all patients requiring chronic hemodialysis who under went coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) between January 1 2001 and December 31 2004 at the Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin and compared them to those of a randomized nonuremic control group (n = 68), which consisted of patients who underwent CABG during the same period. Results: During the study period 6315 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting at the Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin. Among these patients, we identified 71 chronic dialysis patients (1.12%). Among dialysis patients, we recorded a perioperative mortality of 5.6%. One-year survival rate was 87.7% among uremic patients and 91.0% in the control group; the corresponding 4-year survival rates were 56.7 and 88.0%, respectively. The incidence of peripheral artery disease was significantly higher in the dialysis group. Uremic patients showed significantly lower hemoglobin serum levels at the time of admission compared to the control group (11.4 ± 1.62 vs. 13.3 ± 1.81 mg/dl). These patients received significantly higher numbers of blood transfusions (6.7 ± 5.6 vs. 2.75 ± 3.8), and platelet transfusions. Conclusion: Our preliminary study indicates that coronary surgery can be performed with acceptable mid-term results when the specific requirements of this patient group are taken into account.

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          Comparative survival of dialysis patients in the United States after coronary angioplasty, coronary artery stenting, and coronary artery bypass surgery and impact of diabetes.

          The optimal method of coronary revascularization in dialysis patients is controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term survival of dialysis patients in the United States after PTCA, coronary stenting, or CABG. Dialysis patients hospitalized from 1995 to 1998 for first coronary revascularization procedures after renal replacement therapy initiation were identified from the US Renal Data System database. All-cause and cardiac survival was estimated by the life-table method and compared by the log-rank test. The impact of independent predictors on survival was examined in a Cox regression model. The in-hospital mortality was 8.6% for 6668 CABG patients, 6.4% for 4836 PTCA patients, and 4.1% for 4280 stent patients. The 2-year all-cause survival (mean+/-SEM) was 56.4+/-1.4% for CABG patients, 48.2+/-1.5% for PTCA patients, and 48.4+/-2.0% for stent patients (P<0.0001). After comorbidity adjustment, the relative risk (RR) for CABG (versus PTCA) patients was 0.80 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.84, P<0.0001) for all-cause death and 0.72 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.77, P<0.0001) for cardiac death. For stent (versus PTCA) patients, the RR was 0.94 (95% CI 0.88 to 0.99, P=0.03) for all-cause death and 0.92 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.99, P=0.04) for cardiac death. In diabetic (versus PTCA) patients, the RR for CABG surgery was 0.81 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.88, P<0.0001) for all-cause death and 0.71 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.78, P<0.0001) for cardiac death, and the RR for the stent procedure was 0.99 (95% CI 0.91 to 1.08, P=NS) for all-cause death and 0.99 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.11, P=NS) for cardiac death. In this retrospective study, dialysis patients in the United States had better long-term survival after CABG surgery than after percutaneous coronary intervention. Stent outcomes were relatively worse in diabetic patients. Our data support the need for large clinical registries and prospective trials of surgical and percutaneous coronary revascularization procedures in dialysis patients.
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            Differential survival after coronary revascularization procedures among patients with renal insufficiency.

            Acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, and other cardiac events are the major cause of mortality among patients with renal insufficiency. Previous studies of interventions for coronary artery disease among patients with renal insufficiency have not controlled for potentially confounding factors such as coronary artery disease severity and left ventricular function. This study investigates the comparative survival for patients with renal insufficiency and coronary artery disease following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery as compared with percutaneous coronary artery intervention (PCI), while controlling for confounding factors. This retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing CABG surgery or PCI discharged between 1993 and 1995 uses the New York Department of Health databases and Cox proportional hazards analyses to estimate the mortality risk associated with CABG as compared with PCI for patients with renal insufficiency. Renal function was categorized as creatinine or =2.5 mg/dL (N = 840), and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis (N = 407). Patients with either ESRD or serum creatinine > or =2.5 mg/dL had more severe coronary artery disease and a greater frequency of comorbid conditions as compared with patients with creatinine or =2.5 mg/dL and ESRD were both associated with an increased mortality risk among all distributions of coronary artery disease anatomy. Among patients with ESRD, the risk ratio (RR) of mortality for patients undergoing CABG compared with PCI was 0.39 (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.67, P = 0.0006). Among patients with creatinine > or =2.5 mg/dL, CABG surgery did not convey a survival benefit over PCI (RR, 0.86, 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.33, P = 0.50). This study demonstrates a survival benefit among patients with ESRD undergoing CABG surgery as compared with PCI, while controlling for severity of coronary artery disease, left ventricular dysfunction, and other comorbid conditions. These results suggest that management decisions among patients with coronary artery disease should be made in the context of not only location and severity of coronary artery lesions, but also on the presence and severity of renal dysfunction.
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              Long-term outcome of renal transplant recipients in the United States after coronary revascularization procedures.

              Retrospective studies in dialysis patients have reported increased survival after coronary artery bypass (CAB) compared with coronary artery stenting and PTCA. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term outcome of renal transplant recipients after stent, PTCA, or CAB with or without internal mammary grafting (CAB [IMG+] or CAB [IMG-]). Renal transplant recipients hospitalized from 1995 to 1999 for first coronary revascularization procedure were retrospectively identified from the United States Renal Data System database. Event-free survival for the end points of all-cause death, cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and the combined end point of cardiac death or AMI was estimated by the life-table method. The impact of independent predictors on survival was examined in a comorbidity-adjusted Cox model. In-hospital mortality rate was 2.3% for 909 stent patients, 4.3% for 652 PTCA patients, 9.4% for 288 CAB (IMG-) patients, and 5.0% for 812 CAB (IMG+) patients. Two-year all-cause survival (+/-SE) was: stent, 82.5+/-2.8%; PTCA, 81.6+/-3.1%; CAB (IMG-), 74.4+/-5.4%; and CAB (IMG+), 82.7+/-2.8%. The relative risks of all-cause and cardiac death were not significantly different among revascularization groups. The relative risk of cardiac death or AMI (versus PTCA) was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.69 to 1.17) for stent, 0.80 (95% CI, 0.55 to 1.17) for CAB (IMG-), and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.76) for CAB (IMG+). Renal transplant recipients in the United States have comparable long-term survival after percutaneous and surgical coronary revascularization procedures. The most favorable long-term outcome occurs after surgical coronary revascularization.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                March 2006
                20 March 2006
                : 28
                : 5-6
                : 270-274
                Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin, Klinik für Herz-, Thorax- und Gefässchirurgie, Berlin, Deutschland
                90180 Kidney Blood Press Res 2005;28:270–274
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 9, Pages: 5
                Self URI (application/pdf):
                Managing Coronary Heart Disease in Chronic Uremia


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