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      Acute appendicitis in young children less than 5 years: review article

      review-article

      Italian Journal of Pediatrics

      BioMed Central

      Acute appendicitis, Children, Under 5 years

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          Abstract

          Despite wide spread availability of sophisticated diagnostic imaging, acute appendicitis in pre-school children remains a diagnostic challenge. Most of these children present late, often with complications e.g. appendicular perforation, abscess formation and peritonitis and as result hospital stay is prolonged and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.

          The purpose of this article is to review peculiar features of acute appendicitis in preschool children.

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          Most cited references 108

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          Radiation exposure from CT scans in childhood and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours: a retrospective cohort study

          Summary Background Although CT scans are very useful clinically, potential cancer risks exist from associated ionising radiation, in particular for children who are more radiosensitive than adults. We aimed to assess the excess risk of leukaemia and brain tumours after CT scans in a cohort of children and young adults. Methods In our retrospective cohort study, we included patients without previous cancer diagnoses who were first examined with CT in National Health Service (NHS) centres in England, Wales, or Scotland (Great Britain) between 1985 and 2002, when they were younger than 22 years of age. We obtained data for cancer incidence, mortality, and loss to follow-up from the NHS Central Registry from Jan 1, 1985, to Dec 31, 2008. We estimated absorbed brain and red bone marrow doses per CT scan in mGy and assessed excess incidence of leukaemia and brain tumours cancer with Poisson relative risk models. To avoid inclusion of CT scans related to cancer diagnosis, follow-up for leukaemia began 2 years after the first CT and for brain tumours 5 years after the first CT. Findings During follow-up, 74 of 178 604 patients were diagnosed with leukaemia and 135 of 176 587 patients were diagnosed with brain tumours. We noted a positive association between radiation dose from CT scans and leukaemia (excess relative risk [ERR] per mGy 0·036, 95% CI 0·005–0·120; p=0·0097) and brain tumours (0·023, 0·010–0·049; p<0·0001). Compared with patients who received a dose of less than 5 mGy, the relative risk of leukaemia for patients who received a cumulative dose of at least 30 mGy (mean dose 51·13 mGy) was 3·18 (95% CI 1·46–6·94) and the relative risk of brain cancer for patients who received a cumulative dose of 50–74 mGy (mean dose 60·42 mGy) was 2·82 (1·33–6·03). Interpretation Use of CT scans in children to deliver cumulative doses of about 50 mGy might almost triple the risk of leukaemia and doses of about 60 mGy might triple the risk of brain cancer. Because these cancers are relatively rare, the cumulative absolute risks are small: in the 10 years after the first scan for patients younger than 10 years, one excess case of leukaemia and one excess case of brain tumour per 10 000 head CT scans is estimated to occur. Nevertheless, although clinical benefits should outweigh the small absolute risks, radiation doses from CT scans ought to be kept as low as possible and alternative procedures, which do not involve ionising radiation, should be considered if appropriate. Funding US National Cancer Institute and UK Department of Health.
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            The epidemiology of appendicitis and appendectomy in the United States.

            To describe the epidemiology of appendicitis and appendectomy in the United States, the authors analyzed National Hospital Discharge Survey data for the years 1979-1984. Approximately 250,000 cases of appendicitis occurred annually in the United States during this period, accounting for an estimated 1 million hospital days per year. The highest incidence of primary positive appendectomy (appendicitis) was found in persons aged 10-19 years (23.3 per 10,000 population per year); males had higher rates of appendicitis than females for all age groups (overall rate ratio, 1.4:1). Racial, geographic, and seasonal differences were also noted. Appendicitis rates were 1.5 times higher for whites than for nonwhites, highest (15.4 per 10,000 population per year) in the west north central region, and 11.3% higher in the summer than in the winter months. The highest rate of incidental appendectomy was found in women aged 35-44 years (43.8 per 10,000 population per year), 12.1 times higher than the rate for men of the same age. Between 1970 and 1984, the incidence of appendicitis decreased by 14.6%; reasons for this decline are unknown. A life table model suggests that the lifetime risk of appendicitis is 8.6% for males and 6.7% for females; the lifetime risk of appendectomy is 12.0% for males and 23.1% for females. Overall, an estimated 36 incidental procedures are performed to prevent one case of appendicitis; for the elderly, the preventive value of an incidental procedure is considerably lower.
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              A practical score for the early diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

              We conducted a retrospective study of 305 patients hospitalized with abdominal pain suggestive of acute appendicitis. Signs, symptoms, and laboratory findings were analyzed for specificity, sensitivity, predictive value, and joint probability. The total joint probability, the sum of a true-positive and a true-negative result, was chosen as a diagnostic weight indicative of the accuracy of the test. Eight predictive factors were found to be useful in making the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Their importance, according to their diagnostic weight, was determined as follows: localized tenderness in the right lower quadrant, leukocytosis, migration of pain, shift to the left, temperature elevation, nausea-vomiting, anorexia-acetone, and direct rebound pain. Based on this weight, we devised a practical diagnostic score that may help in interpreting the confusing picture of acute appendicitis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                maramhy@hotmail.com
                Journal
                Ital J Pediatr
                Ital J Pediatr
                Italian Journal of Pediatrics
                BioMed Central (London )
                1824-7288
                26 January 2017
                26 January 2017
                2017
                : 43
                Affiliations
                Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taibah University, AL-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                Article
                335
                10.1186/s13052-017-0335-2
                5347837
                28257658
                c57eac42-71ff-4d8f-99c2-c03ef947a211
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Pediatrics

                acute appendicitis, children, under 5 years

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