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      Mechanism of action and interactions between xanthine oxidase inhibitors derived from natural sources of chlorogenic and ferulic acids.

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          Abstract

          The aim of this study was to estimate the phenolic composition and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity of green coffee beans (GCB) and wholemeal wheat flour (WF). Additionally, the type and strength of interaction (expressed as the combination index, CI) and mode of XO inhibition were analyzed. The major phenolic in GCB was 5-caffeoylquinic acid (39.92mg/g dw). The main phenolic acids in WF were trans- and cis-ferulic acids (257 and 165.57mg/100g dw, respectively). Both ferulic and chlorogenic acids individually inhibited XO, and for their combination moderate synergism was found. Buffer extractable compounds from GCB and WF demonstrated slight synergism (CI=0.92), while potentially bioaccessible and bioavailable compounds acted synergistically (CI=0.43 and 0.54, respectively). Buffer-extractable and potentially bioavailable phytochemicals from GCB acted uncompetitively, whereas potentially bioaccessible compounds acted as noncompetitive XO inhibitors. The addition of 3-5% of GCB to wheat bread significantly increased XO-inhibitory activity.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Food Chem
          Food chemistry
          Elsevier BV
          0308-8146
          0308-8146
          Jun 15 2017
          : 225
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Life Sciences, Skromna Str. 8, 20-704 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address: urszula.gawlik@up.lublin.pl.
          [2 ] Department of Thermal Technology, University of Life Sciences, Doświadczalna Str. 44, 20-280 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address: dariusz.dziki@up.lublin.pl.
          [3 ] Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Life Sciences, Skromna Str. 8, 20-704 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address: michal.swieca@up.lublin.pl.
          [4 ] Chair and Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki Str. 1, 20-093 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address: renatanowak@um.lublin.pl.
          Article
          S0308-8146(17)30016-X
          10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.01.016
          28193407

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