Elevated high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) levels have been demonstrated in different human neoplasias. Information on serum HMGB1 before and during chemotherapy is lacking, as is data pertaining to its prognostic significance. The aim of this study was to characterize serum HMGB1 level in dogs with lymphoma and to assess its influence on the outcome following chemotherapy. Serum HMGB1 concentrations were measured in 16 dogs with lymphoma before treatment (W1) and on weeks 2 (W2), 6 (W6) and 12 (W12) of treatment with chemotherapy. Initial serum HMGB1 levels were significantly higher than HMGB1concentrations in control dogs and the levels in W2, W6 and W12. HMGB1-W1 concentrations were lower in dogs achieving complete remission than that in the single dog with partial remission. The ratio W12/W6 exhibited significant influence on remission duration. In these dogs with lymphoma, serum HMGB1 was elevated in comparison with that in controls. Initial serum HMGB1 level and its modulation during treatment may possess prognostic value.