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      An integrative approach to understanding the evolution and diversity of Copiapoa (Cactaceae), a threatened endemic Chilean genus from the Atacama Desert

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          Chloroplast DNA phylogeny, reticulate evolution, and biogeography of Paeonia (Paeoniaceae).

          The coding region of the mat K gene and two intergenic spacers, psb A-trn H and trn L(UAA)-trn F(GAA), of cpDNA were sequenced to study phylogenetic relationships of 32 Paeonia species. In the psb A-trn H intergenic spacer, short sequences bordered by long inverted repeats have undergone inversions that are often homoplasious mutations. Insertions/deletions found in the two intergenic spacers, mostly resulting from slipped-strand mispairing, provided relatively reliable phylogenetic information. The mat K coding region, evolving more rapidly than the trnL-trn F spacer and more slowly than the psb A-trn H spacer, produced the best resolved phylogenetic tree. The mat K phylogeny was compared with the phylogeny obtained from sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. A refined hypothesis of species phylogeny of section Paeonia was proposed by considering the discordance between the nuclear and cpDNA phylogenies to be results of hybrid speciation followed by inheritance of cpDNA of one parent and fixation of ITS sequences of another parent. The Eurasian and western North American disjunct distribution of the genus may have resulted from interrruption of the continuous distribution of ancestral populations of extant peony species across the Bering land bridge during the Miocene. Pleistocene glaciation may have played an important role in triggering extensive reticulate evolution within section Paeonia and shifting distributional ranges of both parental and hybrid species.
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            RASP (Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies): a tool for historical biogeography.

            We announce the release of Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies (RASP), a user-friendly software package for inferring historical biogeography through reconstructing ancestral geographic distributions on phylogenetic trees. RASP utilizes the widely used Statistical-Dispersal Vicariance Analysis (S-DIVA), the Dispersal-Extinction-Cladogenesis (DEC) model (Lagrange), a Statistical DEC model (S-DEC) and BayArea. It provides a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify a phylogenetic tree or set of trees and geographic distribution constraints, draws pie charts on the nodes of a phylogenetic tree to indicate levels of uncertainty, and generates high-quality exportable graphical results. RASP can run on both Windows and Mac OS X platforms. All documentation and source code for RASP is freely available at http://mnh.scu.edu.cn/soft/blog/RASP.
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              Climate change mitigation: A spatial analysis of global land suitability for clean development mechanism afforestation and reforestation

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                American Journal of Botany
                American Journal of Botany
                Botanical Society of America
                00029122
                September 2015
                September 2015
                September 15 2015
                : 102
                : 9
                : 1506-1520
                Article
                10.3732/ajb.1500168
                c5881351-34f9-454e-8ee6-b458dd296ce7
                © 2015

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor


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