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      Impact of Absolute and Relative Commute Time on Work–Family Conflict: Work Schedule Control, Child Care Hours, and Life Satisfaction

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          Abstract

          Flexibility is crucial when employees manage their work and family demands and their commute between home and work. The current study examined the direct and moderation effects of variables from multiple domains including work schedule control (work domain), childcare hours (family domain), and life satisfaction (overall life domain). The impact of the geographic context on work–family conflict was tested with two contextual variables that were generated with Geographic Information System (GIS) technology, where ‘absolute’ and ‘relative commute time’ were investigated in relation to work–family conflict. The participants participated in the National Study of Changing Workforce and completed an online survey on many work and family related variables. Results support the fact that commute time has an impact on work–family dynamics, that life satisfaction can influence this relationship, and that it is important to consider neighborhood in future research to better comprehend work–family interface issues. The study also highlights the importance of urbanization, relative and absolute commute time, etc. in impacting work–family conflict. Additionally, the study discusses the impact of COVID-19 on commute and one’s work–family dynamics. Future research directions are put forward to better understand work and family experiences in the post COVID-19 world.

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          Most cited references 73

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          The Satisfaction With Life Scale.

          This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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            Recent Developments in Role Theory

             B. J. Biddle (1986)
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              Stress that Doesn't Pay: The Commuting Paradox*

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Bing_Bai@Redlands.edu
                Journal
                J Fam Econ Issues
                J Fam Econ Issues
                Journal of Family and Economic Issues
                Springer US (New York )
                1058-0476
                1573-3475
                13 February 2021
                : 1-15
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.267057.1, ISNI 0000 0001 2177 3860, School of Business, , University of Redlands, ; Redlands, CA USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.419406.e, ISNI 0000 0001 0087 8225, LaPenta School of Business, Iona College, ; New York, NY USA
                [3 ]GRID grid.267057.1, ISNI 0000 0001 2177 3860, Department of Geographic Information Science, , University of Redlands, ; Redlands, CA USA
                Article
                9752
                10.1007/s10834-021-09752-w
                7882237
                © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC part of Springer Nature 2021

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                Funding
                Funded by: Spatial Business Research Seed Grant
                Categories
                Original Paper

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