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      A Review of Dual-Task Walking Deficits in People with Parkinson's Disease: Motor and Cognitive Contributions, Mechanisms, and Clinical Implications

      * , ,

      Parkinson's Disease

      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

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          Abstract

          Gait impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD) are exacerbated under dual-task conditions requiring the simultaneous performance of cognitive or motor tasks. Dual-task walking deficits impact functional mobility, which often requires walking while performing concurrent tasks such as talking or carrying an object. The consequences of gait impairments in PD are significant and include increased disability, increased fall risk, and reduced quality of life. However, effective therapeutic interventions for dual-task walking deficits are limited. The goals of this narrative review are to describe dual-task walking deficits in people with PD, to discuss motor and cognitive factors that may contribute to these deficits, to review potential mechanisms underlying dual-task deficits, and to discuss the effect of therapeutic interventions on dual-task walking deficits in persons with PD.

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          Most cited references 151

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          The role of executive function and attention in gait.

          Until recently, gait was generally viewed as a largely automated motor task, requiring minimal higher-level cognitive input. Increasing evidence, however, links alterations in executive function and attention to gait disturbances. This review discusses the role of executive function and attention in healthy walking and gait disorders while summarizing the relevant, recent literature. We describe the variety of gait disorders that may be associated with different aspects of executive function, and discuss the changes occurring in executive function as a result of aging and disease as well the potential impact of these changes on gait. The attentional demands of gait are often tested using dual tasking methodologies. Relevant studies in healthy adults and patients are presented, as are the possible mechanisms responsible for the deterioration of gait during dual tasking. Lastly, we suggest how assessments of executive function and attention could be applied in the clinical setting as part of the process of identifying and understanding gait disorders and fall risk. 2007 Movement Disorder Society
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            Neuropsychological and clinical heterogeneity of cognitive impairment and dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease.

            Cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is gaining increased clinical significance owing to the relative success of therapeutic approaches to the motor symptoms of this disorder. Early investigations contributed to the concept of subcortical dementia associated with bradyphrenia and cognitive rigidity. For cognition in parkinsonian disorders, this notion developed into the concept of mild cognitive impairment and fronto-executive dysfunction in particular, driven mainly by dopaminergic dysmodulation and manifesting as deficits in flexibility, planning, working memory, and reinforcement learning. However, patients with Parkinson's disease could also develop a syndrome of dementia that might depend on non-dopaminergic, cholinergic cortical dysfunction. Recent findings, supplemented by advances in neuroimaging and genetic research, reveal substantial heterogeneity in the range of cognitive deficits in patients with Parkinson's disease. Remediation and management prospects for these cognitive deficits are based on neuropharmacological and cognitive rehabilitation approaches. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Cognitive profile of patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson disease.

              To determine the frequency and pattern of cognitive dysfunction in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson disease (PD) and to identify its demographic and clinical correlates. A cohort of 115 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed PD and 70 healthy controls underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment including tests of psychomotor speed, attention, language, memory, executive and visuospatial functions, as well as measures of affective status. Patients also received quantitative ratings of motor symptom severity and functional status. Neuropsychological performance of PD patients was compared with that of healthy controls and with available normative data. Independent demographic and clinical predictors of cognitive impairment were identified with multiple logistic regression analysis. Relative to controls, PD patients performed significantly worse on most cognitive measures. However, further analysis revealed that group differences in cognitive performance could mainly be explained by measures of immediate memory and executive function. Comparison with normative data showed that impairments were most frequent on measures of executive function, memory and psychomotor speed. In all, 24% of PD patients (4% of controls) displayed defective performance on at least three neuropsychological tests and were classified as cognitively impaired. Late onset of disease was an independent predictor of cognitive dysfunction in PD. Cognitive impairments are common even in newly diagnosed Parkinson disease patients, with deficits being most prominent in the domains of memory and executive functions. Older age at disease onset is likely to be an important determinant of cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parkinsons Dis
                PD
                Parkinson's Disease
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-8083
                2042-0080
                2012
                27 October 2011
                : 2012
                Affiliations
                Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, P.O. Box 356490, Seattle, WA 98195-6490, USA
                Author notes
                *Valerie E. Kelly: vekelly@ 123456uw.edu

                Academic Editor: Alice Nieuwboer

                Article
                10.1155/2012/918719
                3205740
                22135764
                Copyright © 2012 Valerie E. Kelly et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Neurology

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