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Brain activity changes in a macaque model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic cold hypersensitivity

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      Abstract

      The antineoplastic agent oxaliplatin induces a painful peripheral neuropathy characterized by an acute cold hypersensitivity. There is a lack of effective treatments to manage oxaliplatin-induced cold hypersensitivity which is due, in part, to a lack of understanding of the pathophysiology of oxaliplatin-induced cold hypersensitivity. Thus, brain activity in oxaliplatin-treated macaques was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Oxaliplatin treatment reduced tail withdrawal latency to a cold (10 °C) stimulus, indicating cold hypersensitivity and increased activation in the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) and the anterior insular cortex (Ins) was observed. By contrast, no activation was observed in these areas following cold stimulation in untreated macaques. Systemic treatment with an antinociceptive dose of the serotonergic-noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor duloxetine decreased SII and Ins activity. Pharmacological inactivation of SII and Ins activity by microinjection of the GABA A receptor agonist muscimol increased tail withdrawal latency. The current findings indicate that SII/Ins activity is a potential mediator of oxaliplatin-induced cold hypersensitivity.

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      The organization of networks within the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex of rats, monkeys and humans.

       J. Price,  D Öngür (2000)
      This paper reviews architectonic subdivisions and connections of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) in rats, monkeys and humans. Cortico-cortical connections provide the basis for recognition of 'medial' and 'orbital' networks within the OMPFC. These networks also have distinct connections with structures in other parts of the brain. The orbital network receives sensory inputs from several modalities, including olfaction, taste, visceral afferents, somatic sensation and vision, which appear to be especially related to food or eating. In contrast, the medial network provides the major cortical output to visceromotor structures in the hypothalamus and brainstem. The two networks have distinct connections with areas of the striatum and mediodorsal thalamus. In particular, projections to the nucleus accumbens and the adjacent ventromedial caudate and putamen arise predominantly from the medial network. Both networks also have extensive connections with limbic structures. Based on these and other observations, the OMPFC appears to function as a sensory-visceromotor link, especially for eating. This linkage appears to be critical for the guidance of reward-related behavior and for setting of mood. Imaging and histological observations on human brains indicate that clinical depressive disorders are associated with specific functional and cellular changes in the OMPFC, including activity and volume changes, and specific changes in the number of glial cells.
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        Prevention and management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in survivors of adult cancers: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline.

        To provide evidence-based guidance on the optimum prevention and treatment approaches in the management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies (CIPN) in adult cancer survivors. A systematic literature search identified relevant, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the treatment of CIPN. Primary outcomes included incidence and severity of neuropathy as measured by neurophysiologic changes, patient-reported outcomes, and quality of life. A total of 48 RCTs met eligibility criteria and comprise the evidentiary basis for the recommendations. Trials tended to be small and heterogeneous, many with insufficient sample sizes to detect clinically important differences in outcomes. Primary outcomes varied across the trials, and in most cases, studies were not directly comparable because of different outcomes, measurements, and instruments used at different time points. The strength of the recommendations is based on the quality, amount, and consistency of the evidence and the balance between benefits and harms. On the basis of the paucity of high-quality, consistent evidence, there are no agents recommended for the prevention of CIPN. With regard to the treatment of existing CIPN, the best available data support a moderate recommendation for treatment with duloxetine. Although the CIPN trials are inconclusive regarding tricyclic antidepressants (such as nortriptyline), gabapentin, and a compounded topical gel containing baclofen, amitriptyline HCL, and ketamine, these agents may be offered on the basis of data supporting their utility in other neuropathic pain conditions given the limited other CIPN treatment options. Further research on these agents is warranted. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
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          Architectonic subdivision of the human orbital and medial prefrontal cortex.

          The structure of the human orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) was investigated using five histological and immunohistochemical stains and was correlated with a previous analysis in macaque monkeys [Carmichael and Price (1994) J. Comp. Neurol. 346:366-402]. A cortical area was recognized if it was distinct with at least two stains and was found in similar locations in different brains. All of the areas recognized in the macaque OMPFC have counterparts in humans. Areas 11, 13, and 14 were subdivided into areas 11m, 11l, 13a, 13b, 13m, 13l, 14r, and 14c. Within area 10, the region corresponding to area 10m in monkeys was divided into 10m and 10r, and area 10o (orbital) was renamed area 10p (polar). Areas 47/12r, 47/12m, 47/12l, and 47/12s occupy the lateral orbital cortex, corresponding to monkey areas 12r, 12m, 12l, and 12o. The agranular insula (areas Iam, Iapm, Iai, and Ial) extends onto the caudal orbital surface and into the horizontal ramus of the lateral sulcus. The growth of the frontal pole in humans has pushed area 25 and area 32pl, which corresponds to the prelimbic area 32 in Brodmann's monkey brain map, caudal and ventral to the genu of the corpus callosum. Anterior cingulate areas 24a and 24b also extend ventral to the genu of the corpus callosum. Area 32ac, corresponding to the dorsal anterior cingulate area 32 in Brodmann's human brain map, is anterior and dorsal to the genu. The parallel organization of the OMPFC in monkeys and humans allows experimental data from monkeys to be applied to studies of the human cortex. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2230 7538, GRID grid.208504.b, Human Informatics Research Institute, , National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), ; Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 Japan
            [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2369 4728, GRID grid.20515.33, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, , University of Tsukuba, ; Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 Japan
            [3 ]Pharmacology Group, Hamamatsu Pharma Research, Inc., Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-2103 Japan
            Contributors
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3448-1696, n.higo@aist.go.jp
            Journal
            Sci Rep
            Sci Rep
            Scientific Reports
            Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
            2045-2322
            27 June 2017
            27 June 2017
            2017
            : 7
            28655928
            5487329
            4677
            10.1038/s41598-017-04677-7
            © The Author(s) 2017

            Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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