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      Perfectionism predicts disordered eating and gambling via focused self-concept among those high in erroneous beliefs about their disordered behavior

      1 , 2 , * , , 1 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2
      Journal of Behavioral Addictions
      Akadémiai Kiadó
      cognitive distortions, disordered eating, disordered gambling, perfectionism, self-concept

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          Background and aims

          Perfectionism, a focused self-concept, and erroneous beliefs have been implicated in the development and maintenance of various disordered behaviors. However, researchers have yet to examine how these factors combine to explain different disordered behaviors. Herein, we addressed this gap and hypothesized a moderated-mediation model whereby perfectionism fosters the development of disordered behaviors through a focused self-concept. Critically, the effect of a focused self-concept on disordered behaviors is specific to people with erroneous beliefs about their disordered behaviors. The model was tested in the contexts of disordered gambling and disordered eating, particularly dietary restraint.


          In Study 1, participants were community members who gamble ( N = 259). In Study 2, participants were university women ( N = 219). In both studies, participants completed self-report measures of all constructs that are both reliable and valid.


          In Study 1, as expected, there was a positive association between perfectionism and disordered gambling, which was mediated by financially focused self-concept. This mediation was only observed among participants who scored high on illusion of control and belief in luck. Likewise, in Study 2, there was a positive association between perfectionism and dietary restraint, which was mediated by appearance focused self-concept. The mediation effect was only observed among participants who believed that maladaptive dietary restraint behaviors were safe and efficacious.

          Discussion and Conclusions

          The findings support the transdiagnostic utility of our model, which may help explain an array of disordered behaviors, including other addictive behaviors as well as behaviors that involve rigid adherence to rules and control.

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          Most cited references55

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          Addressing Moderated Mediation Hypotheses: Theory, Methods, and Prescriptions.

          This article provides researchers with a guide to properly construe and conduct analyses of conditional indirect effects, commonly known as moderated mediation effects. We disentangle conflicting definitions of moderated mediation and describe approaches for estimating and testing a variety of hypotheses involving conditional indirect effects. We introduce standard errors for hypothesis testing and construction of confidence intervals in large samples but advocate that researchers use bootstrapping whenever possible. We also describe methods for probing significant conditional indirect effects by employing direct extensions of the simple slopes method and Johnson-Neyman technique for probing significant interactions. Finally, we provide an SPSS macro to facilitate the implementation of the recommended asymptotic and bootstrapping methods. We illustrate the application of these methods with an example drawn from the Michigan Study of Adolescent Life Transitions, showing that the indirect effect of intrinsic student interest on mathematics performance through teacher perceptions of talent is moderated by student math self-concept.
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            Cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders: a "transdiagnostic" theory and treatment.

            This paper is concerned with the psychopathological processes that account for the persistence of severe eating disorders. Two separate but interrelated lines of argument are developed. One is that the leading evidence-based theory of the maintenance of eating disorders, the cognitive behavioural theory of bulimia nervosa, should be extended in its focus to embrace four additional maintaining mechanisms. Specifically, we propose that in certain patients one or more of four additional maintaining processes interact with the core eating disorder maintaining mechanisms and that when this occurs it is an obstacle to change. The additional maintaining processes concern the influence of clinical perfectionism, core low self-esteem, mood intolerance and interpersonal difficulties. The second line of argument is that in the case of eating disorders shared, but distinctive, clinical features tend to be maintained by similar psychopathological processes. Accordingly, we suggest that common mechanisms are involved in the persistence of bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa and the atypical eating disorders. Together, these two lines of argument lead us to propose a new transdiagnostic theory of the maintenance of the full range of eating disorders, a theory which embraces a broader range of maintaining mechanisms than the current theory concerning bulimia nervosa. In the final sections of the paper we describe a transdiagnostic treatment derived from the new theory, and we consider in principle the broader relevance of transdiagnostic theories of maintenance.
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              The dimensions of perfectionism


                Author and article information

                J Behav Addict
                J Behav Addict
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                23 September 2021
                October 2021
                October 2021
                : 10
                : 3
                : 524-533
                [1 ] Department of Psychology, Carleton University , Ottawa, ON, Canada
                [2 ] Mental Health and Well-being Research and Training Hub, Carleton University , Ottawa, ON, Canada
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. E-mail: nassim.tabri@ 123456carleton.ca
                Author information
                © 2021 The Author(s)

                Open Access. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                : 20 January 2021
                : 28 June 2021
                : 17 August 2021
                : 01 September 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Equations: 11, References: 54, Pages: 10
                Funded by: Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre (OPGRC) Research

                cognitive distortions,disordered eating,disordered gambling,perfectionism,self-concept


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