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      Renal Denervation for Treating Resistant Hypertension: Current Evidence and Future Insights from a Global Perspective

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      International Journal of Hypertension

      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

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          Abstract

          Adequate blood pressure control represents an important goal for all physicians due to the complications of hypertension which reduce patients' quality of life. A new interventional strategy to reduce blood pressure has been developed for patients with resistant hypertension. Catheter-based renal denervation has demonstrated excellent results in recent investigations associated with few side effects. With the growing diffusion of this technique worldwide, some medical societies have published consensus statements to guide physicians how to best apply this procedure. Questions remain to be answered such as the long-term durability of renal denervation, the efficacy in patients with other sympathetically mediated diseases, and whether renal denervation would benefit patients with stage 1 hypertension.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation for resistant hypertension: a multicentre safety and proof-of-principle cohort study.

          Renal sympathetic hyperactivity is associated with hypertension and its progression, chronic kidney disease, and heart failure. We did a proof-of-principle trial of therapeutic renal sympathetic denervation in patients with resistant hypertension (ie, systolic blood pressure >/=160 mm Hg on three or more antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic) to assess safety and blood-pressure reduction effectiveness. We enrolled 50 patients at five Australian and European centres; 5 patients were excluded for anatomical reasons (mainly on the basis of dual renal artery systems). Patients received percutaneous radiofrequency catheter-based treatment between June, 2007, and November, 2008, with subsequent follow-up to 1 year. We assessed the effectiveness of renal sympathetic denervation with renal noradrenaline spillover in a subgroup of patients. Primary endpoints were office blood pressure and safety data before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after procedure. Renal angiography was done before, immediately after, and 14-30 days after procedure, and magnetic resonance angiogram 6 months after procedure. We assessed blood-pressure lowering effectiveness by repeated measures ANOVA. This study is registered in Australia and Europe with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT 00483808 and NCT 00664638. In treated patients, baseline mean office blood pressure was 177/101 mm Hg (SD 20/15), (mean 4.7 antihypertensive medications); estimated glomerular filtration rate was 81 mL/min/1.73m(2) (SD 23); and mean reduction in renal noradrenaline spillover was 47% (95% CI 28-65%). Office blood pressures after procedure were reduced by -14/-10, -21/-10, -22/-11, -24/-11, and -27/-17 mm Hg at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, respectively. In the five non-treated patients, mean rise in office blood pressure was +3/-2, +2/+3, +14/+9, and +26/+17 mm Hg at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months, respectively. One intraprocedural renal artery dissection occurred before radiofrequency energy delivery, without further sequelae. There were no other renovascular complications. Catheter-based renal denervation causes substantial and sustained blood-pressure reduction, without serious adverse events, in patients with resistant hypertension. Prospective randomised clinical trials are needed to investigate the usefulness of this procedure in the management of this condition.
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            Renal sympathetic-nerve ablation for uncontrolled hypertension.

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              Renal sympathetic denervation reduces left ventricular hypertrophy and improves cardiac function in patients with resistant hypertension.

              This study investigated the effect of catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RD) on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and systolic and diastolic function in patients with resistant hypertension. LVH and diastolic dysfunction are associated with elevated sympathetic activity and increased morbidity and mortality. The effect of RD on LVH and LV function is unclear. Forty-six patients underwent bilateral RD, and 18 patients served as controls. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed at baseline, and after 1 month and 6 months. Besides reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (-22.5/-7.2 mm Hg at 1 month and -27.8/-8.8 mm Hg at 6 months, p < 0.001 at each time point), RD significantly reduced mean interventricular septum thickness from 14.1 ± 1.9 mm to 13.4 ± 2.1 mm and 12.5 ± 1.4 mm (p = 0.007), and LV mass index from 53.9 ± 15.6 g/m(2.7) (112.4 ± 33.9 g/m(2)) to 47.0 ± 14.2 g/m(2.7) (103.6 ± 30.5 g/m(2)) and 44.7 ± 14.9 g/m(2.7) (94.9 ± 29.8 g/m(2)) (p < 0.001) at 1 month and 6 months, respectively. The mitral valve lateral E/E' decreased after RD from 9.9 ± 4.0 to 7.9 ± 2.2 at 1 month and 7.4 ± 2.7 at 6 months (p < 0.001), indicating reduction of LV filling pressures. Isovolumic relaxation time shortened (baseline 109.1 ± 21.7 ms vs. 85.6 ± 24.4 ms at 6 months, p = 0.006), whereas ejection fraction significantly increased after RD (baseline: 63.1 ± 8.1% vs. 70.1 ± 11.5% at 6 months, p < 0.001). No significant changes were obtained in control patients. Besides the known effect on blood pressure, our study showed for the first time that RD significantly reduces LV mass and improves diastolic function, which might have important prognostic implications in patients with resistant hypertension at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Hypertens
                Int J Hypertens
                IJHT
                International Journal of Hypertension
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-0384
                2090-0392
                2013
                27 November 2013
                : 2013
                Affiliations
                1Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Serafín Ruiz de Zárate Ruiz”, Santa Clara, 50100 Villa Clara, Cuba
                2Southern Illinois University School of Medicine and Prairie Education and Research Cooperative, Springfield, IL 62701, USA
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Kazushi Tsuda

                Article
                10.1155/2013/513214
                3863475
                24369496
                Copyright © 2013 Y. Castro Torres and R. E. Katholi.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine

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