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      Use of the Total Cancer Care System to Enrich Screening for CD30-Positive Solid Tumors for Patient Enrollment Into a Brentuximab Vedotin Clinical Trial: A Pilot Study to Evaluate Feasibility


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          One approach to identify patients who meet specific eligibility criteria for target-based clinical trials is to use patient and tumor registries to prescreen patient populations.


          Here we demonstrate that the Total Cancer Care (TCC) Protocol, an ongoing, observational study, may provide a solution for rapidly identifying patients with CD30-positive tumors eligible for CD30-targeted therapies such as brentuximab vedotin.


          The TCC patient gene expression profiling database was retrospectively screened for CD30 gene expression determined using HuRSTA-2a520709 Affymetrix arrays (GPL15048). Banked tumor tissue samples were used to determine CD30 protein expression by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry. Statistical comparisons of Z- and H-scores were performed using R statistical software (The R Foundation), and the predictive value, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of CD30 gene expression versus protein expression was estimated.


          As of March 2015, 120,887 patients have consented to the institutional review board–approved TCC Protocol. A total of 39,157 fresh frozen tumor specimens have been collected, from which over 14,000 samples have gene expression data available. CD30 RNA was expressed in a number of solid tumors; the highest median CD30 RNA expression was observed in primary tumors from lymph node, soft tissue (many sarcomas), lung, skin, and esophagus (median Z-scores 1.011, 0.399, 0.202, 0.152, and 1.011, respectively). High level CD30 gene expression significantly enriches for CD30-positive protein expression in breast, lung, skin, and ovarian cancer; accuracy ranged from 72% to 79%, sensitivity from 75% to 100%, specificity from 70% to 76%, positive predictive value from 20% to 40%, and negative predictive value from 95% to 100%.


          The TCC gene expression profiling database guided tissue selection that enriched for CD30 protein expression in a number of solid tumor types. Such an approach may improve screening efficiency for enrolling patients into biomarker-based clinical trials.

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          Most cited references34

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          Intracellular activation of SGN-35, a potent anti-CD30 antibody-drug conjugate.

          SGN-35 is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) containing the potent antimitotic drug, monomethylauristatin E (MMAE), linked to the anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody, cAC10. As previously shown, SGN-35 treatment regresses and cures established Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma xenografts. Recently, the ADC has been shown to possess pronounced activity in clinical trials. Here, we investigate the molecular basis for the activities of SGN-35 by determining the extent of targeted intracellular drug release and retention, and bystander activities. SGN-35 was prepared with (14)C-labeled MMAE. Intracellular ADC activation on CD30(+) and negative cell lines was determined using a combination of radiometric and liquid chromatograhpy/mass spectrometry-based assays. The bystander activity of SGN-35 was determined using mixed tumor cell cultures consisting of CD30(+) and CD30(-) lines. SGN-35 treatment of CD30(+) cells leads to efficient intracellular release of chemically unmodified MMAE, with intracellular concentrations of MMAE in the range of 500 nmol/L. This was due to specific ADC binding, uptake, MMAE retention, and receptor recycling or resynthesis. MMAE accounts for the total detectable released drug from CD30(+) cells, and has a half-life of retention of 15 to 20 h. Cytotoxicity studies with mixtures of CD30(+) and CD30(-) cell lines indicated that diffusible released MMAE from CD30(+) cells was able to kill cocultivated CD30(-) cells. MMAE is efficiently released from SGN-35 within CD30(+) cancer cells and, due to its membrane permeability, is able to exert cytotoxic activity on bystander cells. This provides mechanistic insight into the pronounced preclinical and clinical antitumor activities observed with SGN-35.
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            CD30(+) anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a review of its histopathologic, genetic, and clinical features.

            Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) represents a generally recognized group of large cell lymphomas. Defining features consist of a proliferation of predominantly large lymphoid cells with strong expression of the cytokine receptor CD30 and a characteristic growth pattern. With the use of molecular and clinical criteria, 3 entities of ALCL have been identified: primary systemic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)(+) ALCL, primary systemic ALK(-) ALCL, and primary cutaneous ALCL. ALK expression is caused by chromosomal translocations, most commonly t(2;5). ALK(+) ALCL predominantly affects young male patients and, if treated with chemotherapy, has a favorable prognosis. It shows a broad morphologic spectrum, with the "common type," the small cell variant, and the lymphohistiocytic variant being most commonly observed. The knowledge of the existence of these variants is essential in establishing a correct diagnosis. ALK(-) ALCL occurs in older patients, affecting both genders equally and having an unfavorable prognosis. The morphology and the immunophenotype of primary cutaneous ALCL show an overlap with that of lymphomatoid papulosis. Both diseases have an excellent prognosis, and secondary systemic dissemination is only rarely observed. The described ALCL entities usually derive from cytotoxic T cells. In contrast, large B-cell lymphomas with anaplastic morphology are believed to represent not a separate entity but a morphologic variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Malignant lymphomas with morphologic features of both Hodgkin disease and ALCL have formerly been classified as Hodgkin-like ALCL. Recent immunohistologic studies, however, suggest that ALCLs Hodgkin-like represent either cases of tumor cell-rich classic Hodgkin disease or (less commonly) ALK(+) ALCL or ALK(-) ALCL. (Blood. 2000;96:3681-3695)
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              Brentuximab Vedotin (SGN-35).

              Brentuximab vedotin (SGN-35) is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) directed against the CD30 antigen expressed on Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. SGN-35 consists of the cAC10 chimerized IgG1 monoclonal antibody SGN30, modified by the addition of a valine-citrulline dipeptide linker to permit attachment of the potent inhibitor of microtubule polymerization monomethylauristatin E (MMAE). In phase II trials, SGN-35 produced response rates of 75% in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 102) and 87% in patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma (n = 30). Responses to SGN-35 might be related not only to the cytotoxic effect due to release of MMAE within the malignant cell but also to other effects. First, SGN-35 may signal malignant cells through CD30 ligation to deliver an apoptotic or proliferative response. The former would amplify the cytotoxicity of MMAE. A proliferative signal delivered in the context of MMAE intoxication could enhance cell death. Second, the efficacy of SGN-35, particularly in Hodgkin lymphoma, might be attributed to its effect on the tumor microenvironment. Diffusion of free MMAE from the targeted tumor cells could result in a bystander effect that kills the normal supporting cells in close proximity to the malignant cells. The elimination of T regulatory cells that inhibit cytotoxic effector cells and elimination of cells that provide growth factor support for Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells could further enhance the cytotoxic activity of SGN-35. Here we review the biology of SGN-35 and the clinical effects of SGN-35 administration. ©2011 AACR.

                Author and article information

                JMIR Res Protoc
                JMIR Res Protoc
                JMIR Research Protocols
                JMIR Publications (Toronto, Canada )
                March 2017
                20 March 2017
                : 6
                : 3
                : e45
                [1] 1Takeda Pharmaceuticals International Company Takeda Data Science Institute Cambridge, MAUnited States
                [2] 2H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Tampa, FLUnited States
                [3] 3M2Gen Administration Tampa, FLUnited States
                [4] 4MedImmune, LLC Research Bioinformatics Gaithersburg, MDUnited States
                [5] 5Takeda Pharmaceuticals International Company Translational and Biomarker Research Cambridge, MAUnited States
                [6] 6M2Gen Bioinformatics Tampa, FLUnited States
                [7] 7H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute Blood and Marrow Transplantation Tampa, FLUnited States
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Bin Li Bin.Li2@ 123456takeda.com
                Author information
                ©Bin Li, Steven A Eschrich, Anders Berglund, Melissa Mitchell, David Fenstermacher, Hadi Danaee, Hongyue Dai, Daniel Sullivan, William L Trepicchio, William S Dalton. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 20.03.2017.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Research Protocols, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on http://www.researchprotocols.org, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

                : 11 January 2017
                : 2 February 2017
                : 22 February 2017
                : 22 February 2017
                Original Paper
                Original Paper

                antitumor agents,cd30 antigen,clinical trial,database management systems,medical oncology


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