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      Interconnection of Salt-induced Hydrophobic Compaction and Secondary Structure Formation Depends on Solution Conditions : REVISITING EARLY EVENTS OF PROTEIN FOLDING AT SINGLE MOLECULE RESOLUTION

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          Hydrodynamic radii of native and denatured proteins measured by pulse field gradient NMR techniques.

          Pulse field gradient NMR methods have been used to determine the effective hydrodynamic radii of a range of native and nonnative protein conformations. From these experimental data, empirical relationships between the measured hydrodynamic radius (R(h)) and the number of residues in the polypeptide chain (N) have been established; for native folded proteins R(h) = 4.75N (0.29)A and for highly denatured states R(h) = 2.21N (0.57)A. Predictions from these equations agree well with experimental data from dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray or neutron scattering studies reported in the literature for proteins ranging in size from 58 to 760 amino acid residues. The predicted values of the hydrodynamic radii provide a framework that can be used to analyze the conformational properties of a range of nonnative states of proteins. Several examples are given here to illustrate this approach including data for partially structured molten globule states and for proteins that are unfolded but biologically active under physiological conditions. These reveal evidence for significant coupling between local and global features of the conformational ensembles adopted in such states. In particular, the effective dimensions of the polypeptide chain are found to depend significantly on the level of persistence of regions of secondary structure or features such as hydrophobic clusters within a conformational ensemble.
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            Biological and chemical applications of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: a review.

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              From the Cover: Charge interactions can dominate the dimensions of intrinsically disordered proteins.

              Many eukaryotic proteins are disordered under physiological conditions, and fold into ordered structures only on binding to their cellular targets. Such intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) often contain a large fraction of charged amino acids. Here, we use single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer to investigate the influence of charged residues on the dimensions of unfolded and intrinsically disordered proteins. We find that, in contrast to the compact unfolded conformations that have been observed for many proteins at low denaturant concentration, IDPs can exhibit a prominent expansion at low ionic strength that correlates with their net charge. Charge-balanced polypeptides, however, can exhibit an additional collapse at low ionic strength, as predicted by polyampholyte theory from the attraction between opposite charges in the chain. The pronounced effect of charges on the dimensions of unfolded proteins has important implications for the cellular functions of IDPs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Biological Chemistry
                J. Biol. Chem.
                American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB)
                0021-9258
                1083-351X
                March 23 2012
                March 30 2012
                : 287
                : 14
                : 11546-11555
                10.1074/jbc.M111.315648
                © 2012

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