The paper reviews the main findings of studies of hemispatial neglect after acquired brain lesions in people. The behavioral consequences of experimentally induced lesions in animals and electrophysiological studies, which shed light on the nature of the disorder, are briefly considered. Neglect is behaviorally defined as a deficit in processing or responding to sensory stimuli in the contralateral hemispace, a part of the own body, the part of an imagined scene, or may include the failure to act with the contralesional limbs despite intact motor functions. Neglect in humans is frequently encountered after right parieto-temporal lesions and leads to a multicomponent syndrome of sensory, motor and representational deficits. Relevant findings relating to neglect, extinction and unawareness are reviewed and include the following topics: etiological and anatomical basis, recovery; allocentric, egocentric, object-centered and representational neglect; motor neglect and directional hypokinesia; elementary sensorimotor and associated disorders; subdivisions of space and frames of reference; extinction versus neglect; covert processing of information; unawareness of deficits; human and animal models; effects of sensory stimulation and rehabilitation techniques.