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      Polyamine Synthesis Inhibition Attenuates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration

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          Abstract

          Vascular smooth muscle cell migration, occurring after intimal injury, is a substantial clinical problem in atherosclerosis and restenosis after stenting. Here we investigate the effects of polyamine synthesis inhibition on vascular smooth muscle cell migration after maximal and submaximal growth stimulation with PDGF-AB or FCS. Vascular smooth muscle cells were obtained from mouse aorta explants. These cells coexpressed smooth muscle α-actin, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry. Treatment with a high (100 ng/ ml) concentration of PDGF-AB stimulated DNA synthesis 6-fold and markedly elevated cell migration. PDGF-AB (100 ng/ml) increased cellular spermidine concentration 2-fold, but had no effect on spermine or putrescine levels. Treatment with the polyamine synthesis inhibitors CGP48664 (1 µ M) and DFMO (5 m M) prevented the PDGF-AB-induced increase in spermidine and reduced spermine concentrations, but had no effect on PDGF-AB-stimulated DNA synthesis or cell migration. Cell migration after submaximal stimulation with either PDGF-AB (8 ng/ml) or FCS (8%) was, however, inhibited by the polyamine synthesis blockers. In summary, these data show that polyamine synthesis inhibition attenuates vascular smooth muscle cell migration under submaximal growth-stimulating conditions, suggesting that polyamines participate in regulation of cell migration and that treatment with polyamine synthesis inhibitors might reduce vascular smooth muscle cell migration after intimal injury.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Cell adhesion: the molecular basis of tissue architecture and morphogenesis.

           B Gumbiner (1996)
          A variety of cell adhesion mechanisms underlie the way that cells are organized in tissues. Stable cell interactions are needed to maintain the structural integrity of tissues, and dynamic changes in cell adhesion participate in the morphogenesis of developing tissues. Stable interactions actually require active adhesion mechanisms that are very similar to those involved in tissue dynamics. Adhesion mechanisms are highly regulated during tissue morphogenesis and are intimately related to the processes of cell motility and cell migration. In particular, the cadherins and the integrins have been implicated in the control of cell movement. Cadherin mediated cell compaction and cellular rearrangements may be analogous to integrin-mediated cell spreading and motility on the ECM. Regulation of cell adhesion can occur at several levels, including affinity modulation, clustering, and coordinated interactions with the actin cytoskeleton. Structural studies have begun to provide a picture of how the binding properties of adhesion receptors themselves might be regulated. However, regulation of tissue morphogenesis requires complex interactions between the adhesion receptors, the cytoskeleton, and networks of signaling pathways. Signals generated locally by the adhesion receptors themselves are involved in the regulation of cell adhesion. These regulatory pathways are also influenced by extrinsic signals arising from the classic growth factor receptors. Furthermore, signals generated locally be adhesion junctions can interact with classic signal transduction pathways to help control cell growth and differentiation. This coupling between physical adhesion and developmental signaling provides a mechanism to tightly integrate physical aspects of tissue morphogenesis with cell growth and differentiation, a coordination that is essential to achieve the intricate patterns of cells in tissues.
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            Regulation of E-cadherin/Catenin association by tyrosine phosphorylation.

            Alteration of cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion is frequently associated to tyrosine phosphorylation of p120- and beta-catenins. We have examined the role of this modification in these proteins in the control of beta-catenin/E-cadherin binding using in vitro assays with recombinant proteins. Recombinant pp60(c-src) efficiently phosphorylated both catenins in vitro, with stoichiometries of 1.5 and 2.0 mol of phosphate/mol of protein for beta-catenin and p120-catenin, respectively. pp60(c-src) phosphorylation had opposing effects on the affinities of beta-catenin and p120 for the cytosolic domain of E-cadherin; it decreased (in the case of beta-catenin) or increased (for p120) catenin/E-cadherin binding. However, a role for p120-catenin in the modulation of beta-catenin/E-cadherin binding was not observed, since addition of phosphorylated p120-catenin did not modify the affinity of phosphorylated (or unphosphorylated) beta-catenin for E-cadherin. The phosphorylated Tyr residues were identified as Tyr-86 and Tyr-654. Experiments using point mutants in these two residues indicated that, although Tyr-86 was a better substrate for pp60(c-src), only modification of Tyr-654 was relevant for the interaction with E-cadherin. Transient transfections of different mutants demonstrated that Tyr-654 is phosphorylated in conditions in which adherens junctions are disrupted and evidenced that binding of beta-catenin to E-cadherin in vivo is controlled by phosphorylation of beta-catenin Tyr-654.
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              Phosphorylation and free pool of beta-catenin are regulated by tyrosine kinases and tyrosine phosphatases during epithelial cell migration.

              Cell migration requires precise control, which is altered or lost when tumor cells become invasive and metastatic. Although the integrity of cell-cell contacts, such as adherens junctions, is essential for the maintenance of functional epithelia, they need to be rapidly disassembled during migration. The transmembrane cell adhesion protein E-cadherin and the cytoplasmic catenins are molecular elements of these structures. Here we demonstrate that epithelial cell migration is accompanied by tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-catenin and an increase of its free cytoplasmic pool. We show further that the protein-tyrosine phosphatase LAR (leukocyte common antigen related) colocalizes with the cadherin-catenin complex in epithelial cells and associates with beta-catenin and plakoglobin. Interestingly, ectopic expression of protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) LAR inhibits epithelial cell migration by preventing phosphorylation and the increase in the free pool of beta-catenin; moreover, it inhibits tumor formation in nude mice. These data support a function for PTP LAR in the regulation of epithelial cell-cell contacts at adherens junctions as well as in the control of beta-catenin signaling functions. Thus PTP-LAR appears to play an important role in the maintenance of epithelial integrity, and a loss of its regulatory function may contribute to malignant progression and metastasis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2004
                April 2004
                21 April 2004
                : 41
                : 2
                : 141-147
                Affiliations
                Department of Physiological Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
                Article
                77133 J Vasc Res 2004;41:141–147
                10.1159/000077133
                15010577
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 32, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Research Paper

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