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      Cesárea y mortalidad perinatal: Incidencia y tendencia 42 años (1969-2010)

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          Abstract

          Objetivo: Determinar cuál ha sido la incidencia y tendencia de la cesárea y la mortalidad perinatal durante los 42 años de actividad asistencial, en el Hospital “Dr. Adolfo Prince Lara”, Puerto Cabello, Estado Carabobo. Métodos: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo y epidemiológico con 27 033 cesáreas y 5 756 muertes perinatales sucedidas en 134 198 nacimientos desde 1969-2010. Se determinó sus incidencias, variaciones porcentuales y tasas, se graficó como serie cronológica, expresando sus porcentajes y tasas anualizadas respectivas, en el análisis estadístico de regresión se señaló la línea de tendencia individual, y finalmente se calculó su ecuación y coeficiente de determinación (R²). Resultados: La incidencia de cesáreas para el período estudiado fue de 20,46 por 100 nacimientos o 1 cesárea cada 5 nacimientos; durante este lapso las cifras extremas o rangos fueron de 4,6 (1970 y 1972) y 43,15 (2010), con una variación porcentual de 737,86. El análisis muestra una línea de tendencia logarítmica global al ascenso sostenido; la fórmula de regresión logarítmica fue y = 11,642ln(x) - 12,188 y el R² = 0,7301, con utilidad pronóstica. La tasa de mortalidad perinatal fue de 41,5 por 1 000 nacidos; hubo cifras extremas de 26,1 (1982) y 59,32 (1975) con variación porcentual de 4,17 %. El análisis señala valores con oscilaciones, hay una línea de tendencia con discreta disminución; la fórmula de regresión logarítmica fue y = -1,578ln(x) + 45,961 y el R² = 0,0322, sin utilidad pronóstica. Conclusión: La incidencia de cesárea en el hospital tiene tendencia progresiva al incremento, finalizando con cifras muy elevadas inaceptables. La tasa global mortalidad perinatal es alta, hay una discreta disminución no significativa, lo cual revela que la cesárea no ha aportado beneficios importantes en la disminución de la mortalidad perinatal. Se presentan estrategias para abatir la “epidemia” de cesáreas y combatir la elevada mortalidad perinatal con actividades intra y extra-hospitalarias.

          Translated abstract

          Objective: To determine what has been the incidence and trends of cesarean section and perinatal mortality (PM) during 42 years of medical service. Hospital “Dr. Adolfo Prince Lara”, Puerto Cabello, Estado Carabobo. Methods: Study observational epidemiological and retrospective of 27 033 cesarean sections and 5 756 perinatal deaths in 134,198 births occurred from 1969-2010. We determined their issues, percentage changes and rates were plotted as time series, expressing their percentage and annualized rates respectively, in the regression analysis statistical indicated the trend line individually, and finally calculated the equation and coefficient of determination (R ²). Results: The incidence of caesarean section for that period were 20.46 cesarean per 100 births or 1 in 5 births, during this time the extreme figures or ranges were 4.6 (1970 and 1972) and 43.15 (2010), 737.86 a percentage change. The analysis shows an overall logarithmic trend line to the steady climb, the logarithmic regression formula was y = 11.642 ln (x) - 12.188 and R ² = 0.7301, with profit forecasts. PM rate was 41.5 per 1 000 births, extreme figures were 26.1 (1982) and 59.32 (1975), with 4.17 % percentage change. The analysis indicates values with swings, there is a trend line with a slight decrease, the logarithmic regression formula was y = -1.578 ln (x) + 45.961 and R ² = 0.0322, forecasts useless. Conclusion: The incidence of caesarean section in the hospital tends to increase gradually, ending with very high figures unacceptable. The overall perinatal mortality is high, there is a slight non significant decrease, which reveals that cesarean section has not provided significant benefits in reducing the PM. Strategies are presented to bring down the “epidemic” of C-sections and combat high maternal mortality with intra-and extra-hospital activities.

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          Most cited references61

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          Health consequences of the increasing caesarean section rates.

          Caesarean section (C-section) rates are rising in many middle- and high-income countries, with the justification that higher rates of C-section are associated with better outcomes. A review of 79 studies comparing outcomes of elective caesarean sections with vaginal deliveries, including both observational studies and randomized trials, suggests that caesarean sections may have substantially greater risks than vaginal deliveries. In this issue of Epidemiology, Leung and colleagues present data from Hong Kong on morbidity in offspring related to C-section. Such studies are needed to widen the scope of possible health outcomes related to elective C-sections, including such endpoints as maternal satisfaction and women's relationship with their child. Testing of interventions to reduce unnecessary C-sections is also needed, with strategies to enhance the role of women in the process of their obstetric care.
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            Severe obstetric morbidity in the United States: 1998-2005.

            To examine trends in the rates of severe obstetric complications and the potential contribution of changes in delivery mode and maternal characteristics to these trends. We performed a cross-sectional study of severe obstetric complications identified from the 1998-2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of changes in delivery mode and maternal characteristics on rates of severe obstetric complications. The prevalence of delivery hospitalizations (per 1,000) complicated by at least one severe obstetric complication increased from 0.64% (n=48,645) in 1998-1999 to 0.81% (n=68,433) in 2004-2005. Rates of complications that increased significantly during the study period included renal failure by 21% (from 0.23 to 0.28), pulmonary embolism by 52% (0.12 to 0.18), adult respiratory distress syndrome by 26% (0.36 to 0.45), shock by 24% (0.15 to 0.19), blood transfusion by 92% (2.38 to 4.58), and ventilation by 21 % (0.47 to 0.57). In logistic regression models, adjustment for maternal age had no effect on the increased risk for these complications in 2004-2005 relative to 1998-1999. However, after adjustment for mode of delivery, the increased risks for these complications in 2004-2005 relative to 1998-1999 were no longer significant, with the exception of pulmonary embolism (odds ratio 1.30) and blood transfusion (odds ratio 1.72). Further adjustment for payer, multiple births, and select comorbidities had little effect. Rates of severe obstetric complications increased from 1998-1999 to 2004-2005. For many of these complications, these increases were associated with the increasing rate of cesarean delivery. III.
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              Impact of mode of delivery on neonatal complications: trends between 1997 and 2005.

              This study examined whether rates of selected neonatal complications vary by mode of delivery and whether these rates are changing as a result of the increasing cesarean delivery rate.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                og
                Revista de Obstetricia y Ginecología de Venezuela
                Rev Obstet Ginecol Venez
                Sociedad de Obstetricia y Ginecología de Venezuela (Caracas )
                0048-7732
                September 2012
                : 72
                : 3
                : 145-151
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Hospital Dr. Adolfo Prince Lara Venezuela
                Article
                S0048-77322012000300002
                c5e60ebf-8065-4008-8341-7e8639f06027

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0048-7732&lng=en
                Categories
                OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY

                Obstetrics & Gynecology
                Incidence,Trend,Cesárea,Mortalidad perinatal,Cesarean section,Perinatal mortality,Incidencia,Tendencia

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