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      Bispectral Index Dynamics During Propofol Hypnosis Is Similar in Red-Haired and Dark-Haired Subjects :

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          Most cited references 37

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          Variants of the melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor gene are associated with red hair and fair skin in humans.

          Melanin pigmentation protects the skin from the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). There are two types of melanin, the red phaeomelanin and the black eumelanin, both of which are present in human skin. Eumelanin is photoprotective whereas phaeomelanin, because of its potential to generate free radicals in response to UVR, may contribute to UV-induced skin damage. Individuals with red hair have a predominance of phaeomelain in hair and skin and/or a reduced ability to produce eumelanin, which may explain why they fail to tan and are at risk from UVR. In mammals the relative proportions of phaeomelanin and eumelanin are regulated by melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), which acts via its receptor (MC1R), on melanocytes, to increase the synthesis of eumelanin and the product of the agouti locus which antagonises this action. In mice, mutations at either the MC1R gene or agouti affect the pattern of melanogenesis resulting in changes in coat colour. We now report the presence of MC1R gene sequence variants in humans. These were found in over 80% of individuals with red hair and/or fair skin that tans poorly but in fewer than 20% of individuals with brown or black hair and in less than 4% of those who showed a good tanning response. Our findings suggest that in humans, as in other mammals, the MC1R is a control point in the regulation of pigmentation phenotype and, more importantly, that variations in this protein are associated with a poor tanning response.
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            The influence of method of administration and covariates on the pharmacokinetics of propofol in adult volunteers.

            Unresolved issues with propofol include whether the pharmacokinetics are linear with dose, are influenced by method of administration (bolus vs. infusion), or are influenced by age. Recently, a new formulation of propofol emulsion, containing disodium edetate (EDTA), was introduced in the United States. Addition of EDTA was found by the manufacturer to significantly reduce bacterial growth. This study investigated the influences of method of administration, infusion rate, patient covariates, and EDTA on the pharmacokinetics of propofol. Twenty-four healthy volunteers aged 26-81 yr were given a bolus dose of propofol, followed 1 h later by a 60-min infusion. Each volunteer was randomly assigned to an infusion rate of 25, 50, 100, or 200 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1). Each volunteer was studied twice under otherwise identical circumstances: once receiving propofol without EDTA and once receiving propofol with EDTA. The influence of the method of administration and of the volunteer covariates was explored by fitting a three-compartment mamillary model to the data. The influence of EDTA was investigated by direct comparison of the measured concentrations in both sessions. The concentrations of propofol with and without EDTA were not significantly different. The concentration measurements after the bolus dose were significantly underpredicted by the parameters obtained just from the infusion data. The kinetics of propofol were linear within the infusion range of 25-200 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1). Age was a significant covariate for Volume2 and Clearance2, as were weight, height, and lean body mass for the metabolic clearance. These results demonstrate that method of administration (bolus vs. infusion), but not EDTA, influences the pharmacokinetics of propofol. Within the clinically relevant range, the kinetics of propofol during infusions are linear regarding infusion rate.
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              Bispectral analysis measures sedation and memory effects of propofol, midazolam, isoflurane, and alfentanil in healthy volunteers.

               C Rosow,  L Kearse,  P Glass (1997)
              The bispectral index (BIS), a value derived from the electroencephalograph (EEG), has been proposed as a measure of anesthetic effect. To establish its utility for this purpose, it is important to determine the relation among BIS, measured drug concentration, and increasing levels of sedation. This study was designed to evaluate this relation for four commonly used anesthetic drugs: propofol, midazolam, isoflurane, and alfentanil. Seventy-two consenting volunteers were studied at four institutions. Volunteers were given either isoflurane, propofol, midazolam, or alfentanil. Each volunteer was administered a dose-ranging sequence of one of the study drugs to achieve predetermined target concentrations. A frontal montage was used for continuous recording of the EEG. At each pseudo-steady-state drug concentration, a BIS score was recorded, the participant was shown either a picture or given a word to recall, an arterial blood sample was obtained for subsequent analysis of drug concentration, and the participant was evaluated for level of sedation as determined by the responsiveness portion of the observer's assessment of the alertness/ sedation scale (OAAS). An OAAS score of 2 or less was considered unconscious. The BIS (version 2.5) score was recorded in real-time and the BIS (version 3.0) was subsequently derived off-line from the recorded raw EEG data. The relation among BIS, measured drug concentration, responsiveness score, and presence or absence of recall was determined by linear and logistic regression for both the individual drugs and, when appropriate, for the pooled results. The prediction probability was also calculated. The BIS score (r = 0.883) correlated significantly better than the measured propofol concentration (r = -0.778; P < 0.05) with the responsiveness score. The BIS provided as effective correlation with responsiveness score of the OAAS as did the measured concentration for midazolam and isoflurane. None of the volunteers given alfentanil lost consciousness and thus were excluded from the pooled analysis. The pooled BIS values at which 50% and 95% of participants were unconscious were 67 and 50, respectively. The prediction probability values for BIS ranged from 0.885-0.976, indicating a very high predictive performance for correctly indicating probability of loss of consciousness. The BIS both correlated well with the level of responsiveness and provided an excellent prediction of the loss of consciousness. These results imply that BIS may be a valuable monitor of the level of sedation and loss of consciousness for propofol, midazolam, and isoflurane.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Anesthesia & Analgesia
                Anesthesia & Analgesia
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0003-2999
                2013
                February 2013
                : 116
                : 2
                : 319-326
                Article
                10.1213/ANE.0b013e31827533b4
                © 2013
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