Patrício Aguiar , MD , 1 , Olga Azevedo , MD 2 , 5 , 6 , Rui Pinto , PharmD, PhD 3 , Jacira Marino , CNS 4 , Carlos Cardoso , PharmD, PhD 3 , Nuno Sousa , MD, PhD 5 , 6 , Damião Cunha , MD, PhD 5 , 6 , Derralynn Hughes , MD, DPhil 4 , José Luís Ducla Soares , MD, PhD 1
13 March 2018
Cardiomyopathy is a major determinant of overall Fabry disease ( FD) prognosis, with the worst outcomes in patients with myocardial fibrosis. Late gadolinium enhancement is currently the gold standard for evaluation of replacement myocardial fibrosis; however, this event is irreversible, thus identification of biomarkers of earlier diffuse fibrosis is paramount.
Type I collagen synthesis and degradation biomarkers (PICP [carboxyterminal propeptide of procollagen type I], ICTP [carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen], and MMP1 [matrix metalloproteinase 1] and MMP2) and markers of bone synthesis and degradation were evaluated (to adjust type I collagen metabolism to bone turnover) in FD patients and controls. FD patients were grouped by cardiomyopathy severity, according to echocardiogram: (1) normal, (2) tissue Doppler abnormalities, (3) left ventricular hypertrophy. A significant increase in PICP and a significant decrease in matrix metalloproteinases were observed in FD patients; even the group with normal echocardiogram had a significant increase in PICP. We also found a significant correlation between left ventricular mass and PICP (ρ=0.378, P=0.003) and MMP1 (ρ=−0.484, P<0.001). PICP (adjusted for bone turnover) was the better predictor of left ventricular mass in multivariable regression, and its diagnostic accuracy to predict late gadolinium enhancement was also significant.
Collagen type I synthesis is increased in FD cardiomyopathy, even in the earlier stages of the disease, and this profibrotic state has good predictive value for and is likely to be critical to the development of overt left ventricular hypertrophy. Moreover, inhibition of enzymes involved in collagen type I cleavage also seems crucial to myocardial collagen deposition.