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      Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization Among Health Care Workers of a Tertiary Hospital in Ecuador and Associated Risk Factors


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          Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant to most of the commonly used antibiotics and is therefore a public health issue. Colonization with MRSA is a risk factor for infection or transmission.


          To determine the prevalence of colonization with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and MRSA strains in health care workers (HCWs) at a tertiary hospital in Ecuador and to determine the risk factors associated with carriage.


          Out of a cohort of 3800 HCWs, 481 individuals from different hospital departments were randomly selected, and a single nasal swab was collected. Detection of SA and MRSA was carried out with the LightCycler ® MRSA Advanced Test. A questionnaire was performed that gathered demographic and occupational information of the participants to determine risk factors for MRSA colonization. Statistical analysis was performed with univariate and multivariate analysis and the R-software version 4.0.2.


          Colonization with SA and MRSA occurred in respectively 23.7% (95% CI, 22.7–24.6) and 5% (95% CI, 3.39–7.58) of the individuals. The multivariate analysis showed that being older in age (OD 1.09) and being male (OD 2.78) were risk factors for SA and MRSA colonization ( p-value < 0.001). Previous use of antibiotics or the use of nasal ointments diminished the colonization rates of SA (24% versus 3.7% and 10.1% respectively).


          About 20% of the HCWs who were colonized with SA were colonized with MRSA, representing a risk for nosocomial infections and hospital outbreaks. Active monitoring and a decolonization treatment of the HCWs can reduce these risks.

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          Most cited references38

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          Molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance.

          Antibiotic-resistant bacteria that are difficult or impossible to treat are becoming increasingly common and are causing a global health crisis. Antibiotic resistance is encoded by several genes, many of which can transfer between bacteria. New resistance mechanisms are constantly being described, and new genes and vectors of transmission are identified on a regular basis. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which bacteria are either intrinsically resistant or acquire resistance to antibiotics, including the prevention of access to drug targets, changes in the structure and protection of antibiotic targets and the direct modification or inactivation of antibiotics.
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            SHEA guideline for preventing nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus.

            Infection control programs were created three decades ago to control antibiotic-resistant healthcare-associated infections, but there has been little evidence of control in most facilities. After long, steady increases of MRSA and VRE infections in NNIS System hospitals, the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Board of Directors made reducing antibiotic-resistant infections a strategic SHEA goal in January 2000. After 2 more years without improvement, a SHEA task force was appointed to draft this evidence-based guideline on preventing nosocomial transmission of such pathogens, focusing on the two considered most out of control: MRSA and VRE. Medline searches were conducted spanning 1966 to 2002. Pertinent abstracts of unpublished studies providing sufficient data were included. Frequent antibiotic therapy in healthcare settings provides a selective advantage for resistant flora, but patients with MRSA or VRE usually acquire it via spread. The CDC has long-recommended contact precautions for patients colonized or infected with such pathogens. Most facilities have required this as policy, but have not actively identified colonized patients with surveillance cultures, leaving most colonized patients undetected and unisolated. Many studies have shown control of endemic and/or epidemic MRSA and VRE infections using surveillance cultures and contact precautions, demonstrating consistency of evidence, high strength of association, reversibility, a dose gradient, and specificity for control with this approach. Adjunctive control measures are also discussed. Active surveillance cultures are essential to identify the reservoir for spread of MRSA and VRE infections and make control possible using the CDC's long-recommended contact precautions.
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              Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): global epidemiology and harmonisation of typing methods.

              This article reviews recent findings on the global epidemiology of healthcare-acquired/associated (HA), community-acquired/associated (CA) and livestock-associated (LA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and aims to reach a consensus regarding the harmonisation of typing methods for MRSA. MRSA rates continue to increase rapidly in many regions and there is a dynamic spread of strains across the globe. HA-MRSA is currently endemic in hospitals in most regions. CA-MRSA clones have been spreading rapidly in the community and also infiltrating healthcare in many regions worldwide. To date, LA-MRSA is only prevalent in certain high-risk groups of workers in direct contact with live animals. CA-MRSA and LA-MRSA have become a challenge for countries that have so far maintained low rates of MRSA. These evolutionary changes have resulted in MRSA continuing to be a major threat to public health. Continuous efforts to understand the changing epidemiology of S. aureus infection in humans and animals are therefore necessary, not only for appropriate antimicrobial treatment and effective infection control but also to monitor the evolution of the species. The group made several consensus decisions with regard to harmonisation of typing methods. A stratified, three-level organisation of testing laboratories was proposed: local; regional; and national. The functions of, and testing methodology used by, each laboratory were defined. The group consensus was to recommend spa and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing as the preferred methods. Both are informative in defining particular strain characteristics and utilise standardised nomenclatures, making them applicable globally. Effective communication between each of the different levels and between national centres was viewed as being crucial to inform and monitor the molecular epidemiology of MRSA at national and international levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Infect Drug Resist
                Infect Drug Resist
                Infection and Drug Resistance
                25 August 2021
                : 14
                : 3433-3440
                [1 ]Facultad de Ingenierías y Ciencias Aplicadas, Biotecnología, Universidad de Las Américas , Quito, Ecuador
                [2 ]Unidad Técnica de Genética Molecular, Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín , Quito, Ecuador
                [3 ]Grupo de Bio-Quimioinformatica, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Las Américas , Quito, Ecuador
                [4 ]IESS Quito Sur General Hospital, Institutional Coordination of Epidemiological Surveillance and Infectology, Molecular Microbiology , Quito, Ecuador
                [5 ]Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Central del Ecuador , Quito, Ecuador
                [6 ]Unidad de Biociencias, Gerencia de Molecular y Oncodiagnóstico, SIMED S.A ., Quito, Ecuador
                [7 ]One Health Research Group, Facultad de Ingenierías y Ciencias Aplicadas, Biotecnología, Universidad de Las Américas , Quito, Ecuador
                [8 ]Programa de Doctorado en Salud Pública y Animal, Universidad de Extremadura , Extremadura, España
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Carlos Bastidas-Caldes One Health Research Group, Facultad de Ingenierías y Ciencias Aplicadas, Biotecnología, Universidad de Las Américas , Quito, EcuadorTel +593 983 174949 Email carlos.bastidas@udla.edu.ec; cabastidasc@gmail.com
                © 2021 Baroja et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, References: 43, Pages: 8
                Original Research

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                staphylococcus aureus,sa,antibiotic resistance,methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus,mrsa,health care workers,hcws,colonization,risk factors


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