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      Copper stress response in yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa AN5 isolated from sea ice, Antarctic

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          Heavy metal pollution in Antarctic is serious by anthropogenic emissions and atmospheric transport. To dissect the heavy metal adaptation mechanisms of sea‐ice organisms, a basidiomycetous yeast strain AN5 was isolated and its cellular changes were analyzed. Morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization indicated that this yeast strain belonged to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa AN5. Heavy metal resistance pattern of Cd > Pb = Mn > Cu > Cr > Hg was observed. Scanning electron microscopic ( SEM) results exhibited altered cell surface morphology under the influence of copper metal compared to that with control. The determination of physiological and biochemical changes manifested that progressive copper treatment significantly increased antioxidative reagents content and enzymes activity in the red yeast, which quench the active oxygen species to maintain the intercellular balance of redox state and ensure the cellular fission and growth. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that, under 2  mM copper stress, 95 protein spots were tested reproducible changes of at least 10‐fold in cells. Among 95 protein spots, 43 were elevated and 52 were decreased synthesis. After MALDI TOF MS/ MS analysis, 51 differentially expressed proteins were identified successfully and classified into six functional groups, including carbohydrate and energy metabolism, nucleotide and protein metabolism, protein folding, antioxidant system, signaling, and unknown function proteins. Function analysis indicated that carbohydrate and energy metabolism‐, nucleotide and protein metabolism‐, and protein folding‐related proteins played central role to the heavy metal resistance of Antarctic yeast. Generally, the results revealed that the yeast has a great capability to cope with heavy metal stress and activate the physiological and protein mechanisms, which allow more efficient recovery after copper stress. Our studies increase understanding of the molecular resistance mechanism of polar yeast to heavy metal, which will be benefitted for the sea‐ice isolates to be a potential candidate for bioremediation of metal‐contaminated environments.

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            MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0.

            We announce the release of an advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis. In version 6.0, MEGA now enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements the RelTime method for estimating divergence times for all branching points in a phylogeny. A new Timetree Wizard in MEGA6 facilitates this timetree inference by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify the phylogeny and calibration constraints step-by-step. This version also contains enhanced algorithms to search for the optimal trees under evolutionary criteria and implements a more advanced memory management that can double the size of sequence data sets to which MEGA can be applied. Both GUI and command-line versions of MEGA6 can be downloaded from free of charge.
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              Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction.


                Author and article information

                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                21 June 2018
                March 2019
                : 8
                : 3 ( doiID: 10.1002/mbo3.2019.8.issue-3 )
                [ 1 ] School of Marine Science and Technology Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai Weihai China
                [ 2 ] Tobacco Integrated Pest Management of China Tobacco Tobacco Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science Qingdao China
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Cuijuan Shi, School of Marine Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, 2 Wenhuaxi Road, Weihai 264209, China.

                Email: cjshi@

                © 2018 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Figures: 9, Tables: 1, Pages: 18, Words: 11144
                Funded by: Key Technologies R & D Program of Shandong
                Award ID: 2013G0021502
                Award ID: 2016ZDJQ0206
                Funded by: Natural Scientific Research Innovation Foundation in Harbin Institute of Technology
                Award ID: HIT.IBRSEM.2013037
                Award ID: HIT.NSRIF.2016085
                Funded by: Science and Technology Project of Weihai
                Award ID: WH20140209
                Original Article
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                March 2019
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.6.1 mode:remove_FC converted:27.03.2019

                Microbiology & Virology

                adaptive responses, antarctica yeast, copper stress, proteomics


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