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      Cross-sectional and longitudinal assessment of muscle from regular chest computed tomography scans: L1 and pectoralis muscle compared to L3 as reference in non-small cell lung cancer

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          Abstract

          Background

          Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used in clinical research for single-slice assessment of muscle mass to correlate with clinical outcome and evaluate treatment efficacy. The third lumbar level (L3) is considered as reference for muscle, but chest scans generally do not reach beyond the first lumbar level (L1). This study investigates if pectoralis muscle and L1 are appropriate alternatives for L3.

          Methods

          CT scans of 115 stage IV non-small cell lung cancer patients were analyzed before and during tumor therapy. Skeletal muscle assessed at pectoralis and L1 muscle was compared to L3 at baseline. Furthermore, the prognostic significance of changes in muscle mass determined at different locations was investigated.

          Results

          Pearson’s correlation coefficient between skeletal muscle at L3 and L1 was stronger ( r=0.90, P<0.001) than between L3 and pectoralis muscle ( r=0.71, P<0.001). Cox regression analysis revealed that L3 (HR 0.943, 95% CI: 0.92–0.97, P<0.001) and L1 muscle loss (HR 0.954, 95% CI: 0.93–0.98, P<0.001) predicted overall survival, whereas pectoralis muscle loss did not.

          Conclusion

          L1 is a better alternative than pectoralis muscle to substitute L3 for analysis of muscle mass from regular chest CT scans.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Body composition and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          Survival studies have consistently shown significantly greater mortality rates in underweight and normal-weight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than in overweight and obese COPD patients. To compare the contributions of low fat-free mass and low fat mass to mortality, we assessed the association between body composition and mortality in COPD. We studied 412 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD [Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (GOLD) stages II-IV, forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 36 +/- 14% of predicted (range: 19-70%). Body composition was assessed by using single-frequency bioelectrical impedance. Body mass index, fat-free mass index, fat mass index, and skeletal muscle index were calculated and related to recently developed reference values. COPD patients were stratified into defined categories of tissue-depletion pattern. Overall mortality was assessed at the end of follow-up. Semistarvation and muscle atrophy were equally distributed among disease stages, but the highest prevalence of cachexia was seen in GOLD stage IV. Forty-six percent of the patients (n = 189) died during a maximum follow-up of 5 y. Cox regression models, with and without adjustment for disease severity, showed that fat-free mass index (relative risk: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.96; P = 0.003) was an independent predictor of survival, but fat mass index was not. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression plots for cachexia and muscle atrophy did not differ significantly. Fat-free mass is an independent predictor of mortality irrespective of fat mass. This study supports the inclusion of body-composition assessment as a systemic marker of disease severity in COPD staging.
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            Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample: findings from the Copenhagen City Heart Study.

            Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2)). We explored distribution of low FFMI and its association with prognosis in a population-based cohort of patients with COPD. We used data on 1,898 patients with COPD identified in a population-based epidemiologic study in Copenhagen. FFM was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients were followed up for a mean of 7 yr and the association between BMI and FFMI and mortality was examined taking age, sex, smoking, and lung function into account. The mean FFMI was 16.0 kg/m(2) for women and 18.7 kg/m(2) for men. Among subjects with normal BMI, 26.1% had an FFMI lower than the lowest 10th percentile of the general population. BMI and FFMI were significant predictors of mortality, independent of relevant covariates. Being in the lowest 10th percentile of the general population for FFMI was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.8) for overall mortality and 2.4 (1.4-4.0) for COPD-related mortality. FFMI was also a predictor of overall mortality when analyses were restricted to subjects with normal BMI. FFMI provides information in addition to BMI and assessment of FFM should be considered in the routine assessment of COPD.
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              Muscle weakness is related to utilization of health care resources in COPD patients.

              The factors determining utilization of health care resources in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are poorly understood. In order to obtain insight into these factors, we studied the utilization of health care resources in 57 stable COPD patients with a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of 36 +/- 9% predicted. Patients were divided into two groups: admitted at least twice in the last year (high medical consumption; n = 23) or not admitted in the last year (low medical consumption; n = 34). Other variables related to utilization of health care resources studied were; the number of hospital days; the number of out-patient visits to a pulmonary department in the last year; and the average daily dose (ADD) of corticosteroids taken in the last 6 months. The actual cost of utilization of health care resources, however, was not studied. In addition, pulmonary function, serum electrolytes, blood gas values, 6 min walking distance, respiratory and peripheral muscle force, and appraisal of self-care agency (ASA score) were studied. Pulmonary function, serum electrolytes, blood gas values, ASA score and walking distance were not different between the two groups (e.g. FEV1 36 +/- 8 vs 36 +/- 10% pred). Respiratory muscle forces tended to be lower in the high medical consumption group, this tendency almost reaching statistical significance for maximal expiratory pressure (PE,max) (p = 0.08). Peripheral muscle force, however, was clearly reduced in the high medical consumption group (quadriceps force 63 +/- 20 vs 82 +/- 26% pred; p < 0.05). The number of admissions, the number of hospital days, the number of out-patient visits, and ADD were interrelated and also related to ventilatory and peripheral muscle force (r -0.18 to -0.38). This relationship was statistically significant for PE,max, whilst a similar tendency was present for maximal inspiratory pressure (PI,max). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, only quadriceps force was a significant determinant of utilization of health care services. We conclude that utilization of health care services in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is related to ventilatory and peripheral muscle force. Whether or not reduced muscle force is simply an expression of disease severity remains to be determined.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2019
                03 April 2019
                : 14
                : 781-789
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, the Netherlands, a.schols@ 123456maastrichtuniversity.nl
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, the Netherlands
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Annemie MWJ Schols, Department of Respiratory Medicine, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, the Netherlands, Tel +31 043 387 5046, Email a.schols@ 123456maastrichtuniversity.nl
                Article
                copd-14-781
                10.2147/COPD.S194003
                6452800
                © 2019 Sanders et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                respiratory disease, computed tomography, muscle mass, body composition

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