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      Free p-cresylsulphate is a predictor of mortality in patients at different stages of chronic kidney disease.

      Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

      Aged, Biological Markers, blood, Cresols, Female, Humans, Kidney Failure, Chronic, mortality, Male, Predictive Value of Tests, Sulfuric Acid Esters, Survival Rate

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          Abstract

          Uraemic toxins are considered to be emerging mortality risk factors in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. p-Cresol (a prototype protein-bound uraemic retention solute) has been shown to exert toxic effects in vitro. Recently, it has been demonstrated that p-cresol is present in plasma as its sulphate conjugate, p-cresylsulphate. The present study evaluated the distribution of free and total p-cresylsulphate and sought to determine whether these parameters were associated with vascular calcification, arterial stiffness and mortality risk in a cohort of CKD patients. One hundred and thirty-nine patients (mean +/- SD age: 67 +/- 12; males: 60%) at different stages of CKD (8% at Stage 2, 26.5% at Stage 3, 26.5% at Stage 4, 7% at Stage 5 and 32% at Stage 5D) were enrolled in this study. Baseline total and free p-cresylsulphate presented an inverse relationship with renal function and were significantly associated with vascular calcification. During the study period (mean follow-up period: 779 +/- 185 days), 38 patients died [including 22 from cardiovascular (CV) causes]. In crude survival analyses, free (but not total) p-cresylsulphate was shown to be a predictor of overall and CV death. Higher free p-cresylsulphate levels (>0.051 mg/100 mL; median) were associated with mortality independently of well-known predictors of survival such as age, vascular calcification, anaemia and inflammation. Serum levels of free and total p-cresylsulphate (the main in vivo circulating metabolites of p-cresol) were elevated in later CKD stages. However, only free p-cresylsulphate seems to be a predictor of survival in CKD.

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          Journal
          19914995
          10.1093/ndt/gfp592

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