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      Modeling individual differences in text reading fluency: a different pattern of predictors for typically developing and dyslexic readers

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          Abstract

          This study was aimed at predicting individual differences in text reading fluency. The basic proposal included two factors, i.e., the ability to decode letter strings (measured by discrete pseudo-word reading) and integration of the various sub-components involved in reading (measured by Rapid Automatized Naming, RAN). Subsequently, a third factor was added to the model, i.e., naming of discrete digits. In order to use homogeneous measures, all contributing variables considered the entire processing of the item, including pronunciation time. The model, which was based on commonality analysis, was applied to data from a group of 43 typically developing readers (11- to 13-year-olds) and a group of 25 chronologically matched dyslexic children. In typically developing readers, both orthographic decoding and integration of reading sub-components contributed significantly to the overall prediction of text reading fluency. The model prediction was higher (from ca. 37 to 52% of the explained variance) when we included the naming of discrete digits variable, which had a suppressive effect on pseudo-word reading. In the dyslexic readers, the variance explained by the two-factor model was high (69%) and did not change when the third factor was added. The lack of a suppression effect was likely due to the prominent individual differences in poor orthographic decoding of the dyslexic children. Analyses on data from both groups of children were replicated by using patches of colors as stimuli (both in the RAN task and in the discrete naming task) obtaining similar results. We conclude that it is possible to predict much of the variance in text-reading fluency using basic processes, such as orthographic decoding and integration of reading sub-components, even without taking into consideration higher-order linguistic factors such as lexical, semantic and contextual abilities. The approach validity of using proximal vs. distal causes to predict reading fluency is discussed.

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          Most cited references65

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          The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills.

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            DRC: a dual route cascaded model of visual word recognition and reading aloud.

            This article describes the Dual Route Cascaded (DRC) model, a computational model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. The DRC is a computational realization of the dual-route theory of reading, and is the only computational model of reading that can perform the 2 tasks most commonly used to study reading: lexical decision and reading aloud. For both tasks, the authors show that a wide variety of variables that influence human latencies influence the DRC model's latencies in exactly the same way. The DRC model simulates a number of such effects that other computational models of reading do not, but there appear to be no effects that any other current computational model of reading can simulate but that the DRC model cannot. The authors conclude that the DRC model is the most successful of the existing computational models of reading.
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              The neural code for written words: a proposal.

              How is reading, a cultural invention, coded by neural populations in the human brain? The neural code for written words must be abstract, because we can recognize words regardless of their location, font and size. Yet it must also be exquisitely sensitive to letter identity and letter order. Most existing coding schemes are insufficiently invariant or incompatible with the constraints of the visual system. We propose a tentative neuronal model according to which part of the occipito-temporal 'what' pathway is tuned to writing and forms a hierarchy of local combination detectors sensitive to increasingly larger fragments of words. Our proposal can explain why the detection of 'open bigrams' (ordered pairs of letters) constitutes an important stage in visual word recognition.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-1078
                18 November 2014
                2014
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome Rome, Italy
                [2] 2Neuropsychology Unit, IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia Rome, Italy
                [3] 3Department of Human Movement Sciences and Health, University of Rome “Foro Italico” Rome, Italy
                Author notes

                Edited by: Peter F. De Jong, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

                Reviewed by: Stefan Hawelka, University of Salzburg, Austria; Athanassios Protopapas, University of Athens, Greece

                *Correspondence: Maria De Luca, Neuropsychology Unit, IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Via Ardeatina 306, 00176 Rome, Italy e-mail: m.deluca@ 123456hsantalucia.it

                This article was submitted to Language Sciences, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology.

                Article
                10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01374
                4235379
                25477856
                c62890c1-c6c1-442b-bf4a-fb083ae1f4bc
                Copyright © 2014 Zoccolotti, De Luca, Marinelli and Spinelli.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 6, Equations: 0, References: 99, Pages: 18, Words: 15858
                Categories
                Psychology
                Original Research Article

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                reading,individual differences,dyslexia,suppression effect,ran,vocal reaction times

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