Objective: Graft-infiltrating cells (GIC) have been studied in heart, lung, and liver transplants and have been shown to have greater proliferative ability when taken from rejecting allografts. Our aim was to study GIC harvested by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in renal transplant recipients. Patients and Methods: 93 adult patients entered the study. The FNABs were done on the 7th, 14th, and 30th day after transplantation in stable cases and whenever a rejection crisis supervened. Results: The proliferation responses of GIC were significantly higher in rejection than in stable cases during the 1st month after transplantation. The sensitivity for rejection was 96.4%, the specificity 91.3%, the negative predictive value 98.7%, and the positive predictive value was 93.3% among dysfunctioning grafts. Conclusions: The study of the proliferative capacity of graft-infiltrating cells in renal transplants is a safe and very useful immunologic monitoring tool, and it could improve the FNAB diagnostic accuracy.