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      Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to standard precautions of surgeons and physicians in university-affiliated hospitals of Shiraz, Iran


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          To measure levels of knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward standard precautions (SP) in medical practitioners of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences affiliated hospitals in Iran.


          In this cross-sectional study, knowledge, attitude, and practice related to SP among four medical staff groups – surgeons, surgical residents, physicians and medical residents – were assessed using a questionnaire.


          Across the four medical staffing groups the median levels of knowledge ranged from 6 to 7 (maximum score 9), median attitude scores were high ranging from 35 to 36 (maximum score 45), while median practice scores were low, ranging from 2 to 3 (maximum score 9). A moderate relationship between knowledge and attitudes was found in surgical residents and medical residents ( r = 0.397, p = 0.030 and r = 0.554, p = 0.006, respectively). No significant correlation was found between knowledge and practice between the groups. A significant but poor ( r = 0.399, p = 0.029) relationship between attitude and practice was found in surgical residents.


          Specific training programs may have to target newly graduated medical practitioners to establish acceptance of appropriate practices that will enable them to adopt and adhere to SP while their older counterparts may require more intense continuous assistance.

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          Most cited references41

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          Nurses' knowledge of and compliance with universal precautions in an acute care hospital.

          A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the nurses' knowledge of and compliance with Universal Precautions (UP) in an acute hospital in Hong Kong. A total of 450 nurses were randomly selected from a population of acute care nurses and 306 were successfully recruited in the study. The study revealed that the nurses' knowledge of UP was inadequate. In addition, UP was not only insufficiently and inappropriately applied, but also selectively practiced. Nearly all respondents knew that used needles should be disposed of in a sharps' box after injections. However, nurses had difficulty in distinguishing between deep body fluids and other general body secretions that are not considered infectious in UP. A high compliance was reported regarding hand-washing, disposal of needles and glove usage. However, the use of other protective wear such as masks and goggles was uncommon. The results also showed no significant relationships between the nurses' knowledge and compliance with UP. It is recommended that UP educational programmes need to consider attitudes in conjunction with empirical knowledge. Nurse managers and occupational health nurses should take a leadership role to ensure safe practices are used in the care of patients.
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            Compliance with universal precautions among physicians.

            This study characterized and assessed self-reported levels of compliance with universal precautions (UP) among hospital-based physicians, and determined significant factors associated with both compliance and noncompliance. The physicians (n = 322) were a subgroup of a larger study population of hospital-based health care workers recruited from three geographically distinct locations (n = 1746), and were surveyed using a detailed confidential questionnaire that assessed personal, work-related, and organizational factors. Compliance with UP was measured through 11 items that examined how often physicians followed specific recommended work practices. Compliance was found to vary among the 11 items: they were high for certain activities (eg, glove use, 94%; disposal of sharps, 92%) and low for others (eg, wearing protective clothing, 55%; not recapping needles, 56%). Compliance with all items was low (31% to 38%). Stepwise logistic regression revealed that noncompliant physicians were likely to be age 37 or older, to report high work stress, and to perceive a conflict of interest between providing patient care and protecting themselves. Compliant physicians were more likely to be knowledgeable and to have been trained in universal precautions, to perceive protective measures as being effective, and to perceive an organizational commitment to safety.
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              Can antibiotic-resistant nosocomial infections be controlled?

              Three decades ago infection-control programmes were created to control antibiotic-resistant nosocomial infections, but numbers of these infections have continued to increase, leading many to question whether control is feasible. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci were major problems during the 1990s. Many hospitals have tried antibiotic control but with limited efficacy against these pathogens. Studies of antibiotic restriction, substitution, and cycling have been promising, but more definitive data are needed. Increased compliance with hand hygiene would help but is unlikely to control this problem alone as a result of frequent contamination of other surfaces even when hands are cleansed and high transmission rates when hand hygiene is neglected. For 17 years, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended contact precautions for preventing nosocomial spread of important antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Many studies confirm that this approach works when sufficient active-surveillance cultures are undertaken to detect the reservoir for spread. However, most healthcare facilities have not yet tried this approach.

                Author and article information

                Int J Infect Dis
                Int. J. Infect. Dis
                International Journal of Infectious Diseases
                International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
                11 July 2006
                May 2007
                11 July 2006
                : 11
                : 3
                : 213-219
                [a ]Community Medicine Department, Shiraz Medical School, Shiraz Nephro-Urology Research Center, PO Box 71345-1737, Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran
                [b ]Hospital Infection Epidemiology & Surveillance Unit, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
                [c ]Epidemiology/Infection Control, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, CA, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Tel.: +98 917 112 5777; fax: +98 711 2359847. askariam@ 123456sums.ac.ir
                Copyright © 2006 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.


                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                knowledge,attitudes,standard isolation precautions,surgeons,physicians


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