The aphid genus Mesocallis Matsumura in China is reviewed. A total of seven species are recognised using morphological characteristics, including six known species, Mesocallis ( Mesocallis) alnicola Ghosh, M. ( Paratinocallis) corylicola (Higuchi), M. ( M.) pteleae Matsumura, M. ( M.) sawashibae (Matsumura), M. ( P.) yunnanensis (Zhang) and M. ( M.) taoi Quednau, and one new species, M. ( M.) platycaryae Qiao, sp. nov. The new species, collected on Platycarya strobilacea ( Juglandaceae ) in Anhui Province, China, is described and illustrated. A key to Mesocallis species from China is presented.