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      Niyantrita Madhumeha Bharata 2017, Methodology for a Nationwide Diabetes Prevalence Estimate: Part 1

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) poses an ever-increasing threat to people's health worldwide. India has reported high rates of incidence of T2DM. The dangers make accurate assessment of its burden and intervention of lifestyle change, an urgent necessity.

          Aims and Objectives:

          The aim of the study was to estimate the nationwide prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes, followed by a translational lifestyle trial.

          Methodology:

          The Indian Yoga Association was commissioned in 2016–2017 by the Government of India to conduct this study which was undertaken in two phases: Phase 1 was to estimate the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes across the country, and Phase 2 was to conduct a randomized controlled trial using a validated yoga lifestyle protocol. This paper highlights the unique methodology of Phase 1 of the study. The first stage was screening (February to April 2017) for adults (>20 years) with high risk for diabetes on Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS) on mobile app, using a random cluster sampling survey method. All households in the rural (4 villages with about 500 adult population/village) and urban (2 census enumeration blocks [CEBs] of about 1000 adult population/block) sectors of 65 districts (one per ten districts in the entire country) from 29 out of 35 states of India were approached. In the second stage, detailed assessments (sociodemographic, clinical details, A1c, lipid profile, body mass index, stress, and tobacco) were carried out on those with high risk on IDRS and on all self-reported diabetes individuals.

          Results:

          In the first stage of door-to-door visit, 240,968 adults in all households of the selected clusters of villages and CEBs were approached. Of these, 162,330 responded. The respondents in the second stage for detailed assessments in the selected cohort were 50,199 (48% rural and 52% urban) adults. Of these, 7472 were self-reported known diabetes adults and the remaining were 42,737. Prevalence estimates for the country will follow in the future publications.

          Conclusion:

          This rapid survey completed within 3 months in the entire country using trained volunteers offers the methodology to obtain a quick estimate of diabetes and high-risk population to implement any lifestyle program.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Nations within a nation: variations in epidemiological transition across the states of India, 1990–2016 in the Global Burden of Disease Study

          Summary Background 18% of the world's population lives in India, and many states of India have populations similar to those of large countries. Action to effectively improve population health in India requires availability of reliable and comprehensive state-level estimates of disease burden and risk factors over time. Such comprehensive estimates have not been available so far for all major diseases and risk factors. Thus, we aimed to estimate the disease burden and risk factors in every state of India as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016. Methods Using all available data sources, the India State-level Disease Burden Initiative estimated burden (metrics were deaths, disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs], prevalence, incidence, and life expectancy) from 333 disease conditions and injuries and 84 risk factors for each state of India from 1990 to 2016 as part of GBD 2016. We divided the states of India into four epidemiological transition level (ETL) groups on the basis of the ratio of DALYs from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases (CMNNDs) to those from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and injuries combined in 2016. We assessed variations in the burden of diseases and risk factors between ETL state groups and between states to inform a more specific health-system response in the states and for India as a whole. Findings DALYs due to NCDs and injuries exceeded those due to CMNNDs in 2003 for India, but this transition had a range of 24 years for the four ETL state groups. The age-standardised DALY rate dropped by 36·2% in India from 1990 to 2016. The numbers of DALYs and DALY rates dropped substantially for most CMNNDs between 1990 and 2016 across all ETL groups, but rates of reduction for CMNNDs were slowest in the low ETL state group. By contrast, numbers of DALYs increased substantially for NCDs in all ETL state groups, and increased significantly for injuries in all ETL state groups except the highest. The all-age prevalence of most leading NCDs increased substantially in India from 1990 to 2016, and a modest decrease was recorded in the age-standardised NCD DALY rates. The major risk factors for NCDs, including high systolic blood pressure, high fasting plasma glucose, high total cholesterol, and high body-mass index, increased from 1990 to 2016, with generally higher levels in higher ETL states; ambient air pollution also increased and was highest in the low ETL group. The incidence rate of the leading causes of injuries also increased from 1990 to 2016. The five leading individual causes of DALYs in India in 2016 were ischaemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, and cerebrovascular disease; and the five leading risk factors for DALYs in 2016 were child and maternal malnutrition, air pollution, dietary risks, high systolic blood pressure, and high fasting plasma glucose. Behind these broad trends many variations existed between the ETL state groups and between states within the ETL groups. Of the ten leading causes of disease burden in India in 2016, five causes had at least a five-times difference between the highest and lowest state-specific DALY rates for individual causes. Interpretation Per capita disease burden measured as DALY rate has dropped by about a third in India over the past 26 years. However, the magnitude and causes of disease burden and the risk factors vary greatly between the states. The change to dominance of NCDs and injuries over CMNNDs occurred about a quarter century apart in the four ETL state groups. Nevertheless, the burden of some of the leading CMNNDs continues to be very high, especially in the lowest ETL states. This comprehensive mapping of inequalities in disease burden and its causes across the states of India can be a crucial input for more specific health planning for each state as is envisioned by the Government of India's premier think tank, the National Institution for Transforming India, and the National Health Policy 2017. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; Indian Council of Medical Research, Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India; and World Bank
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            High prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in India: National Urban Diabetes Survey.

            There has been no reported national survey of diabetes in India in the last three decades, although several regional studies show a rising prevalence of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in six major cities, covering all the regions of the country. Using a stratified random sampling method, 11216 subjects (5288 men; 5928 women) aged 20 years or above, representative of all socio-economic strata, were tested by OGTT. Demographic, anthropometric, educational and social details were recorded using a standard proforma. Physical activity was categorised using a scoring system. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Glucose tolerance was classified using the 2-h values (WHO criteria). Prevalence estimations were made taking into account the stratified sampling procedure. Group comparisons were done by t-test or analysis of variance or Z-test as relevant. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to study the association of variables with diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. Age standardised prevalences of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance were 12.1% and 14.0% respectively, with no gender difference. Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance showed increasing trend with age. Subjects under 40 years of age had a higher prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance than diabetes (12.8% vs 4.6%, p < 0.0001). Diabetes showed a positive and independent association with age, BMI, WHR, family history of diabetes, monthly income and sedentary physical activity. Age, BMI and family history of diabetes showed associations with impaired glucose tolerance. This national study shows that the prevalence of diabetes is high in urban India. There is a large pool of subjects with impaired glucose tolerance at a high risk of conversion to diabetes.
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              Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in 15 states of India: results from the ICMR–INDIAB population-based cross-sectional study

              Previous studies have not adequately captured the heterogeneous nature of the diabetes epidemic in India. The aim of the ongoing national Indian Council of Medical Research-INdia DIABetes study is to estimate the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in India by estimating the prevalence by state.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Yoga
                Int J Yoga
                IJY
                International Journal of Yoga
                Wolters Kluwer - Medknow (India )
                0973-6131
                2231-2714
                Sep-Dec 2019
                : 12
                : 3
                : 179-192
                Affiliations
                Division of Yoga and Life Sciences, Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
                [1 ] Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
                [2 ] Patanjali Research Foundation, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Nagarathna R, Division of Yoga and Life Sciences, Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. E-mail: rnagaratna@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                IJY-12-179
                10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_40_18
                6746051
                c6345df7-324c-4d60-9571-247b075d79f8
                Copyright: © 2019 International Journal of Yoga

                This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                Categories
                Original Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine

                diabetes, india, methodology, prevalence, yoga practices

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