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      Is Alcohol Drinking Associated with Renal Impairment in the General Population of South Korea?

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          Background/Aims: We examined relationships between the average amount of daily alcohol intake, drinking patterns, and renal dysfunction among South Korean adultsaged ≥ 20 years. Methods: The analysis used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a cross-sectional survey of Korean civilians, conducted from January to December 2011. In this study, a sample of 5,251 participants was analysed. Results: Compared with abstinence, the odds ratio for a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 0.14 (95% CI: 0.01-0.91) among heavy drinkers, and 0.42 (95% CI: 0.17-0.98) among binge drinkers and the association between the amount of mean daily alcohol intake, binge-drinking status and a likelihood of reduced eGFR value showed significant trends (p = 0.041 and p = 0.038, respectively), after adjusting for age, smoking status, amount of physical activity, morbid hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, anaemia and body mass index. There was no significant association between alcohol consumption and the urine albumin to creatinine ratio in men, or between alcohol consumption and renal dysfunction in women. Conclusions: Alcohol consumption was inversely associated with a reduction in eGFR in Korean men. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously, given the other harmful effects related to alcohol consumption, especially heavy and binge drinking.

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          Chronic kidney disease as cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

           Z Massy,  Àngel Argilés,   (2005)
          To make an evidence-based evaluation of the relationship between kidney failure and cardiovascular risk, we reviewed the literature obtained from a PubMed search using pre-defined keywords related to both conditions and covering 18 years (1986 until end 2003). Eighty-five publications, covering 552 258 subjects, are summarized. All but three studies support a link between kidney dysfunction and cardiovascular risk. More importantly, the association is observed very early during the evolution of renal failure: an accelerated cardiovascular risk appears at varying glomerular filtration rate (GFR) cut-off values, which were >/=60 ml/min in at least 20 studies. Many studies lacked a clear definition of cardiovascular disease and/or used a single determination of serum creatinine or GFR as an index of kidney function, which is not necessarily corresponding to well-defined chronic kidney disease. In six studies, however, chronic kidney dysfunction and cardiovascular disease were well defined and the results of these confirm the impact of kidney dysfunction. It is concluded that there is an undeniable link between kidney dysfunction and cardiovascular risk and that the presence of even subtle kidney dysfunction should be considered as one of the conditions necessitating intensive prevention of this cardiovascular risk.
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            Chronic kidney disease awareness, prevalence, and trends among U.S. adults, 1999 to 2000.

            The incidence of kidney failure treatment in the United States increased 57% from 1991 to 2000. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) prevalence was 11% among U.S. adults surveyed in 1988 to 1994. The objective of this study was to estimate awareness of CKD in the U.S. population during 1999 to 2000 and to determine whether the prevalence of CKD in the United States increased compared with 1988 to 1994. Analysis was conducted of nationally representative samples of noninstitutionalized adults, aged 20 yr and older, in two National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted in 1988 to 1994 (n = 15,488) and 1999 to 2000 (n = 4101) for prevalence +/- SE. Awareness of CKD is self-reported. Kidney function (GFR), kidney damage (microalbuminuria or greater), and stages of CKD (GFR and albuminuria) were estimated from calibrated serum creatinine, spot urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR), age, gender, and race. GFR was estimated using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation. Self-reported awareness of weak or failing kidneys in 1999 to 2000 was strongly associated with decreased kidney function and albuminuria but was low even in the presence of both conditions. Only 24.3 +/- 6.4% of patients at GFR 15 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and albuminuria were aware of CKD compared with 1.1 +/- 0.3% at GFR of 90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) or greater and no microalbuminuria. At moderately decreased kidney function (GFR 30 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), awareness was much lower among women than men (2.9 +/- 1.6 versus 17.9 +/- 5.9%; P = 0.008). The prevalence of moderately or severely decreased kidney function (GFR 15 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) remained stable over the past decade (4.4 +/- 0.3% in 1988 to 1994 and 3.8 +/- 0.4% in 1999 to 2000; P = 0.23). At the same time, the prevalence of albuminuria (ACR >/= 30 mg/g) in single spot urine increased from 8.2 +/- 0.4% to 10.1 +/- 0.7% (P = 0.01). Overall CKD prevalence was similar in both surveys (9% using ACR > 30 mg/g for persistent microalbuminuria; 11% in 1988 to 1994 and 12% in 1999 to 2000 using gender-specific ACR cutoffs). Despite a high prevalence, CKD awareness in the U.S. population is low. In contrast to the dramatic increase in treated kidney failure, overall CKD prevalence in the U.S. population has been relatively stable.
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              Binge Drinking Among US Adults


                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                July 2014
                03 June 2014
                : 39
                : 1
                : 40-49
                Department of Family medicine, St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                *Sang-Wook Song, M.D., Ph.D. professor, Department of Family medicine, St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The, Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Republic of, Korea), Tel. +82-31-249-8230, HP: +82-10-6329-4139, Fax +82-31-248-7404, E-Mail sswkoj@unitel.co.kr
                355775 Kidney Blood Press Res 2014;39:40-49
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 10
                Original Paper


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