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      Can microbiota transplantation abrogate murine colonization resistance against Campylobacter jejuni?


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          Enterocolitis caused by Campylobacter jejuni represents an important socioeconomic burden worldwide. The host-specific intestinal microbiota is essential for maintaining colonization resistance (CR) against C. jejuni in conventional mice. Notably, CR is abrogated by shifts of the intestinal microbiota towards overgrowth with commensal E. coli during acute ileitis. Thus, we investigated whether oral transplantation (TX) of ileal microbiota derived from C. jejuni susceptible mice with acute ileitis overcomes CR of healthy conventional animals. Four days following ileitis microbiota TX or ileitis induction and right before C. jejuni infection, mice displayed comparable loads of main intestinal bacterial groups as shown by culture. Eight days following ileitis induction, but not ileal microbiota TX, however, C. jejuni could readily colonize the gastrointestinal tract of conventional mice and also translocate to extra-intestinal tissue sites such as mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and blood within 4 days following oral infection. Of note, C. jejuni did not further deteriorate histopathology following ileitis induction. Lack of C. jejuni colonization in TX mice was accompanied by a decrease of commensal E. coli loads in the feces 4 days following C. jejuni infection. In summary, oral ileal microbiota TX from susceptible donors is not sufficient to abrogate murine CR against C. jejuni.

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          Experimental Campylobacter jejuni infection in humans.

          Two strains of Campylobacter jejuni ingested by 111 adult volunteers, in doses ranging from 8 x 10(2) to 2 x 10(9) organisms, caused diarrheal illnesses. Rates of infection increased with dose, but development of illness did not show a clear dose relation. Resulting illnesses with strain A3249 ranged from a few loose stools to dysentery, with an average of five diarrheal stools and a volume of 509 mL. Infection with strain 81-176 was more likely to cause illness, and these illnesses were more severe, with an average of 15 stools and 1484 mL of total stool volume. All patients had fecal leukocytes. The dysenteric nature of the illness indicates that the pathogenesis of C. jejuni infection includes tissue inflammation. Ill volunteers developed a serum antibody response to the C. jejuni group antigen and were protected from subsequent illness but not infection with the same strain.
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            Gram-negative bacteria aggravate murine small intestinal Th1-type immunopathology following oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

            Oral infection of susceptible mice with Toxoplasma gondii results in Th1-type immunopathology in the ileum. We investigated gut flora changes during ileitis and determined contributions of gut bacteria to intestinal inflammation. Analysis of the intestinal microflora revealed that ileitis was accompanied by increasing bacterial load, decreasing species diversity, and bacterial translocation. Gram-negative bacteria identified as Escherichia coli and Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. accumulated in inflamed ileum at high concentrations. Prophylactic or therapeutic administration of ciprofloxacin and/or metronidazole ameliorated ileal immunopathology and reduced intestinal NO and IFN-gamma levels. Most strikingly, gnotobiotic mice in which cultivable gut bacteria were removed by quintuple antibiotic treatment did not develop ileitis after Toxoplasma gondii infection. A reduction in total numbers of lymphocytes was observed in the lamina propria of specific pathogen-free (SPF), but not gnotobiotic, mice upon development of ileitis. Relative numbers of CD4(+) T cells did not differ in naive vs infected gnotobiotic or SPF mice, but infected SPF mice showed a significant increase in the frequencies of activated CD4(+) T cells compared with gnotobiotic mice. Furthermore, recolonization with total gut flora, E. coli, or Bacteroides/Prevotella spp., but not Lactobacillus johnsonii, induced immunopathology in gnotobiotic mice. Animals recolonized with E. coli and/or total gut flora, but not L. johnsonii, showed elevated ileal NO and/or IFN-gamma levels. In conclusion, Gram-negative bacteria, i.e., E. coli, aggravate pathogen-induced intestinal Th1-type immunopathology. Thus, pathogen-induced acute ileitis may prove useful to study bacteria-host interactions in small intestinal inflammation and to test novel therapies based on modulation of gut flora.
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              Novel Murine Infection Models Provide Deep Insights into the “Ménage à Trois” of Campylobacter jejuni, Microbiota and Host Innate Immunity

              Background Although Campylobacter jejuni-infections have a high prevalence worldwide and represent a significant socioeconomic burden, it is still not well understood how C. jejuni causes intestinal inflammation. Detailed investigation of C. jejuni-mediated intestinal immunopathology is hampered by the lack of appropriate vertebrate models. In particular, mice display colonization resistance against this pathogen. Methodology/Principal Findings To overcome these limitations we developed a novel C. jejuni-infection model using gnotobiotic mice in which the intestinal flora was eradicated by antibiotic treatment. These animals could then be permanently associated with a complete human (hfa) or murine (mfa) microbiota. After peroral infection C. jejuni colonized the gastrointestinal tract of gnotobiotic and hfa mice for six weeks, whereas mfa mice cleared the pathogen within two days. Strikingly, stable C. jejuni colonization was accompanied by a pro-inflammatory immune response indicated by increased numbers of T- and B-lymphocytes, regulatory T-cells, neutrophils and apoptotic cells, as well as increased concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 in the colon mucosa of hfa mice. Analysis of MyD88−/−, TRIF−/−, TLR4−/−, and TLR9−/− mice revealed that TLR4- and TLR9-signaling was essential for immunopathology following C. jejuni-infection. Interestingly, C. jejuni-mutant strains deficient in formic acid metabolism and perception induced less intestinal immunopathology compared to the parental strain infection. In summary, the murine gut flora is essential for colonization resistance against C. jejuni and can be overcome by reconstitution of gnotobiotic mice with human flora. Detection of C. jejuni-LPS and -CpG-DNA by host TLR4 and TLR9, respectively, plays a key role in immunopathology. Finally, the host immune response is tightly coupled to bacterial formic acid metabolism and invasion fitness. Conclusion/Significance We conclude that gnotobiotic and “humanized” mice represent excellent novel C. jejuni-infection and -inflammation models and provide deep insights into the immunological and molecular interplays between C. jejuni, microbiota and innate immunity in human campylobacteriosis.

                Author and article information

                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                1 March 2013
                : 3
                : 1
                : 36-43
                [ 1 ] Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                [ 2 ] CC5, Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Charité-University Medicine Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 27, D-12203, Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ] +49-30-8445-2194, +49-30-450-524-902, markus.heimesaat@ 123456charite.de
                : 13 January 2013
                : 16 January 2013

                Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Toxoplasma gondii ,intestinal inflammation, Campylobacter jejuni ,acute ileitis,pathogen-host interaction, E. coli ,colonization resistance,pathogen-commensal interaction,susceptibility to infection,fecal transplantation,bacterial translocation,microbiota


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