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      Changes in Mini-Mental State Exam in Community-Dwelling Older Persons over 6 Years: Relationship to Health and Neuropsychological Measures

      a , b , b


      S. Karger AG

      Health, Aging, Dementia, Cognition, Neuropsychology

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          Although cognitive screening test scores change with advanced age, the significance of these changes (particularly decline in score) needs to be defined in terms of general health and neuropsychological functioning. Such analysis was undertaken in a subgroup of 287 healthy older men (mean age at baseline = 70.7 years) from the Western Collaborative Group Study, an ongoing cardiovascular and aging research project. Time from baseline to follow-up study averaged 6.0 years (SD = 0.5 years). Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores indicated that 15% of participants declined by three or more points (a 1+ standard deviation change among all change scores), 5% of participants improved by three or more points, and 80% of the sample remained within two points of their initial score. In health terms, decliners were significantly older, less active at follow-up, rated their health more poorly, and reported more depressive symptoms than non-decliners. Decliners also performed more poorly on several neuropsychological tests administered at follow-up. Results suggest that a decline of three or more points on the MMSE in community-dwelling, older persons without acute illness may signify important changes in health and cognition.

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          Most cited references 2

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          Evaluation of two new neuropsychological tests designed to minimize cultural bias in the assessment of HIV-1 seropositive persons: a WHO study.

           M Zaudig,  P Satz,  L D'Elia (1993)
          In the course of the preparatory work for the WHO cross-cultural study on the neuropsychiatric aspects of HIV-I infection, two new neuropsychological tests (the WHO/UCLA Auditory Verbal Learning Test and the Color Trails 1 & 2) were developed. The evaluation of these tests was performed at four sites, two in developed and two in developing countries. The data obtained suggest that the tests are more culture fair than others currently used to assess the same functional domains, that they are sensitive to HIV-1-associated cognitive impairment, and that this sensitivity "holds" across different cultures.
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            Mini-Mental State Exam Status of Community-Dwelling Cognitively Intact Centenarians


              Author and article information

              S. Karger AG
              February 2003
              13 January 2003
              : 22
              : 1
              : 23-30
              aDepartments of Medicine (Division of Neurology) and Behavioral Science, Penn State University College of Medicine, The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pa., USA, and bCenter for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., USA
              67113 Neuroepidemiology 2003;22:23–30
              © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Page count
              Tables: 3, References: 44, Pages: 8
              Original Paper


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