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      Simultaneous Vitreoretinal Surgery and Penetrating Keratoplasty without a Keratoprosthesis or Endoscopy for Vitreoretinal Disease Associated with Corneal Opacity

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          Abstract

          We evaluated the visual outcome of combined penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) and 25G pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) performed without a temporary keratoprosthesis or endoscopy in a patient with vitreoretinal disease complicated by severe corneal opacity. The patient was a 68-year-old woman who had severe corneal opacity and silicone oil in her left eye after several previous intraocular surgeries for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. We successfully performed a combined surgery of conventional PKP followed by 25G PPV without the use of a keratoprosthesis.At 6 months after surgery, visual acuity had not improved, and the density of corneal endothelial cells of the donor cornea had declined from 3,205 to 1,969 cells/mm<sup>2</sup>. However, corneal transparency remained good, and additional surgery for vitreoretinal disease was not necessary. The combined surgical procedure designed to minimize the number of open-sky steps and to limit vitreoretinal complications thus proved to be safe and achieved stable corneal clarity in a patient with vitreoretinal disease and severe corneal opacity.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Ten-year postoperative results of penetrating keratoplasty.

          To investigate the changes in central corneal endothelial cells and corneal thickness in transplanted corneas from 5 to 10 years after grafting. This study also aimed to investigate the development of glaucoma, graft rejection, and graft failure during the first 10 postoperative years. Longitudinal cohort study of 500 consecutive penetrating keratoplasties by 1 surgeon. Patients were asked to return for follow-up examinations at 2 months and at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years after grafting. The authors excluded eyes regrafted during the study and the fellow eyes of bilateral cases, leaving 394 grafts in 394 patients for analysis. Penetrating keratoplasty was performed. Using specular microscopy, the authors measured endothelial cell density, coefficient of variation of cell area, percentage of hexagonal cells, and corneal thickness. The authors performed clinical examinations to determine graft rejection or failure and the development of glaucoma. By 10 years postkeratoplasty, 80 of the 394 patients had died and 68 grafts had failed. Of the remaining 246 patients, 119 (48%) returned for their 10-year examinations. For the 72 patients who returned for all of the scheduled postoperative visits and had no rejection episodes, reoperations, or failure, endothelial cell loss from preoperative donor levels at 10 years was 67 +/- 18% (mean +/- standard deviation), endothelial cell density was 958 +/- 471 cells/mm2, coefficient of variation was 0.32 +/- 0.11, hexagonal cells were 56 +/- 12%, and corneal thickness was 0.58 +/- 0.05 mm. The 5- to 10-year changes for all these values were significant (P < or = 0.004). The mean rate of late endothelial cell loss from 5 to 10 years postkeratoplasty was 4.2% per year. Eyes that were aphakic after grafting had the lowest endothelial cell loss (57 +/- 24%) and the lowest interval cell loss from 5 to 10 years postkeratoplasty (4 +/- 19%). Eyes that were phakic had the highest endothelial cell loss (73 +/- 8%) and 5- to 10-year-interval cell loss (17 +/- 31%). Eyes with posterior chamber lenses had a greater endothelial cell loss (71 +/- 9%) than did eyes with anterior chamber lenses (51 +/- 25%, P = 0.03). The 10-year cumulative risk of glaucoma, rejection, or failure was 21%, 21%, and 22%, respectively. Late endothelial failure became the major cause for graft failure, accounting for 9 of the 11 failures after 5 postoperative years. From 5 to 10 years after penetrating keratoplasty, the annual rate of endothelial cell loss was seven times the normal rate. The endothelial cell loss, pleomorphism, polymegethism, and corneal thickness increased significantly during this time, indicating continued endothelial instability and dysfunction, resulting in an increasing rate of late endothelial failure.
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            Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty outcomes compared with penetrating keratoplasty from the Cornea Donor Study.

            To assess outcomes 1 year after Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in comparison with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) from the Specular Microscopy Ancillary Study (SMAS) of the Cornea Donor Study. Multicenter, prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial. A total of 173 subjects undergoing DSAEK for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs' dystrophy or pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema) compared with 410 subjects undergoing PKP from the SMAS who had clear grafts with at least 1 postoperative specular image within a 15-month follow-up period. The DSAEK procedures were performed by 2 experienced surgeons per their individual techniques, using the same donor and similar recipient criteria as for the PKP procedures in the SMAS performed by 68 surgeons at 45 sites, with donors provided from 31 eye banks. Graft success and complications for the DSAEK group were assessed and compared with the SMAS group. Endothelial cell density (ECD) was determined from baseline donor, 6-month (range, 5-7 months), and 12-month (range, 9-15 months) postoperative central endothelial images by the same reading center used in the SMAS. Endothelial cell density and graft survival at 1 year. Although the DSAEK recipient group criteria were similar to the PKP group, Fuchs' dystrophy was more prevalent in the DSAEK group (85% vs. 64%) and pseudophakic corneal edema was less prevalent (13% vs. 32%, P<0.001). The regraft rate within 15 months was 2.3% (DSAEK group) and 1.3% (PKP group) (P = 0.50). Percent endothelial cell loss was 34+/-22% versus 11+/-20% (6 months) and 38+/-22% versus 20+/-23% (12 months) in the DSAEK and PKP groups, respectively (both P<0.001). Preoperative diagnosis affected endothelial cell loss over time; in the PKP group, the subjects with pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema experienced significantly higher 12-month cell loss than the subjects with Fuchs' dystrophy (28% vs. 16%, P = 0.01), whereas in the DSAEK group, the 12-month cell loss was comparable for the 2 diagnoses (41% vs. 37%, P = 0.59). One year post-transplantation, overall graft success was comparable for DSAEK and PKP procedures and endothelial cell loss was higher with DSAEK. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty: three-year graft and endothelial cell survival compared with penetrating keratoplasty.

              To assess 3-year outcomes of Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in comparison with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) from the Cornea Donor Study (CDS). Prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized clinical trial. A total of 173 subjects undergoing DSAEK for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs' dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema) compared with 1101 subjects undergoing PKP from the CDS. The DSAEK procedures were performed by 2 experienced surgeons using the same donor and similar recipient criteria as for the CDS PKP procedures, performed by 68 surgeons. Graft success was assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Central endothelial cell density (ECD) was determined from baseline donor and postoperative central endothelial images by the reading center used in the CDS Specular Microscopy Ancillary Study. Graft clarity and ECD. The donor and recipient demographics were comparable in the DSAEK and PKP groups, except that the proportion of Fuchs' dystrophy cases was higher in the DSAEK cohort. The 3-year survival rate did not differ significantly between DSAEK and PKP procedures performed for either Fuchs' dystrophy (96% for both; P = 0.81) or non-Fuchs' cases (86% vs. 84%, respectively; P = 0.41). Principal causes of graft failure or regraft within 3 years after DSAEK and PKP were immunologic graft rejection (0.6% vs. 3.1%), endothelial decompensation in the absence of documented rejection (1.7% vs 2.1%), unsatisfactory visual or refractive outcome (1.7% vs. 0.5%), and infection (0% vs. 1.1%), respectively. The 3-year predicted probability of a rejection episode was 9% with DSAEK versus 20% with PKP (P = 0.0005). The median 3-year cell loss for DSAEK and PKP was 46% and 51%, respectively (P = 0.33), in Fuchs' dystrophy cases and 59% and 61%, respectively (P = 0.70), in the non-Fuchs' cases. At 3 years, use of a smaller DSAEK insertion incision was associated with significantly higher cell loss (60% vs. 33% for 3.2- and 5.0-mm incisions, respectively; P = 0.0007), but not with a significant difference in graft survival (P = 0.45). The graft success rate and endothelial cell loss were comparable at 3 years for DSAEK and PKP procedures. A 5-mm DSAEK incision width was associated with significantly less cell loss than a 3.2-mm incision. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                COP
                COP
                10.1159/issn.1663-2699
                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2699
                2020
                Januar - April 2020
                19 March 2020
                : 11
                : 1
                : 127-136
                Affiliations
                Department of Ophthalmology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube City, Japan
                Author notes
                *Kazuhiro Kimura, MD, PhD, Department of Ophthalmology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube City, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan), k.kimura@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp
                Article
                506589 PMC7154262 Case Rep Ophthalmol 2020;11:127–136
                10.1159/000506589
                PMC7154262
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Case Report

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