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      2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines

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          A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

          The Lancet, 380(9859), 2224-2260
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            2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults

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              Prospective study of the association between sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension.

              Sleep-disordered breathing is prevalent in the general population and has been linked to chronically elevated blood pressure in cross-sectional epidemiologic studies. We performed a prospective, population-based study of the association between objectively measured sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension (defined as a laboratory-measured blood pressure of at least 140/90 mm Hg or the use of antihypertensive medications). We analyzed data on sleep-disordered breathing, blood pressure, habitus, and health history at base line and after four years of follow-up in 709 participants of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study (and after eight years of follow-up in the case of 184 of these participants). Participants were assessed overnight by 18-channel polysomnography for sleep-disordered breathing, as defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (the number of episodes of apnea and hypopnea per hour of sleep). The odds ratios for the presence of hypertension at the four-year follow-up study according to the apnea-hypopnea index at base line were estimated after adjustment for base-line hypertension status, body-mass index, neck and waist circumference, age, sex, and weekly use of alcohol and cigarettes. Relative to the reference category of an apnea-hypopnea index of 0 events per hour at base line, the odds ratios for the presence of hypertension at follow-up were 1.42 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.78) with an apnea-hypopnea index of 0.1 to 4.9 events per hour at base line as compared with none, 2.03 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.29 to 3.17) with an apnea-hypopnea index of 5.0 to 14.9 events per hour, and 2.89 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.46 to 5.64) with an apnea-hypopnea index of 15.0 or more events per hour. We found a dose-response association between sleep-disordered breathing at base line and the presence of hypertension four years later that was independent of known confounding factors. The findings suggest that sleep-disordered breathing is likely to be a risk factor for hypertension and consequent cardiovascular morbidity in the general population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circulation
                Circulation
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0009-7322
                1524-4539
                October 23 2018
                October 23 2018
                : 138
                : 17
                Affiliations
                [1 ]American Society for Preventive Cardiology Representative. †ACC/AHA Representative. ‡Lay Volunteer/Patient Representative. §Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association Representative. ‖American Academy of Physician Assistants Representative. ¶Task Force Liaison. #Association of Black Cardiologists Representative. **American Pharmacists Association Representative. ††ACC/AHA Prevention Subcommittee Liaison. ‡‡American College of Preventive Medicine Representative. §§American Society of Hypertension...
                Article
                10.1161/CIR.0000000000000596
                30354654
                © 2018

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