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      Estradiol Control of Expression and Levels of Estradiol-Binding Proteins in the Medial Preoptic Area, Medial Hypothalamus and Pituitary

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          Abstract

          The brains of mammals have at least three estradiol-binding proteins: estradiol receptor-α (ERα), ERβ, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). In this study we compare the effects of estradiol treatment on the expression of mRNA for these three estradiol-binding proteins in two reproductively important brain areas, the medial preoptic area-anterior hypothalamus (MPOA-AH) and medial hypothalamus (MH) as well as in the hippocampus in ovariectomized rats, using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We also used surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to analyze the effects of estradiol in ovariectomized rats on SHBG levels in the MPOA-MH as well as the neurohypophysis. In vivo estradiol treatment in ovariectomized rats eliminated or significantly reduced expression of all three estradiol-binding proteins in both the MPOA-AH and MH. This change in ERα, ERβ, and SHBG expression did not occur in the hippocampus. Both Northern blot and DNA sequence analysis confirmed the results of the RT-PCR for SHBG. SELDI-TOF MS analysis demonstrated that in vivo estradiol treatments resulted in dramatically decreased levels of SHBG in the hypothalamus and that a reduction in SHBG mRNA by estradiol treatment also resulted in a reduction in SHBG protein levels. Estradiol treatment also eliminated detectable SHBG from the neurohypophysis, suggesting that estradiol controls SHBG levels in this release site. That in vivo estradiol treatments had the same inhibitory effects on mRNA levels for SHBG and both ERs suggests similar translational control mechanisms for all three steroid-binding proteins in the brain. That estradiol treatments also reduced pituitary SHBG suggests that such treatment releases SHBG from the neurohypophysis.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Comparative distribution of estrogen receptor-? and -? mRNA in the rat central nervous system

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            Oxytocin facilitates the sexual receptivity of estrogen-treated female rats

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              Sex hormone-binding globulin in the human prostate is locally synthesized and may act as an autocrine/paracrine effector.

              Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a plasma protein synthesized and secreted by the liver. Its initial description stemmed from its ability to bind estrogens and androgens and its capacity to regulate the free concentration of the steroids that bind to it. Additionally, it participates in signal transduction for certain steroid hormones at the cell membrane. It binds with high affinity to a specific membrane receptor (R(SHBG)) in prostate stromal and epithelial cells, wherein the SHBG.R(SHBG) complex forms. An appropriate steroid binds to this complex and results in increases of intracellular cAMP. These two disparate functions of SHBG, regulation of the concentration of free steroids in plasma and signal transduction in selected tissues, raise the question of how its synthesis and secretion might be regulated so as to best perform these two disparate functions. In this paper we demonstrate that SHBG is produced in human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, DU 145, and PC 3) as well as in cultured human prostate epithelial and stromal cells. In addition, in tissue sections of human prostate, we demonstrate the presence of SHBG (immunocytochemistry) and SHBG mRNA (in situ hybridization). These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that SHBG, destined to participate in signaling at the cell membrane, is locally regulated and produced.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2003
                August 2003
                20 August 2003
                : 78
                : 2
                : 61-71
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Pharmaceutical Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, N.Dak., USA; bDepartment of Anatomy, University of Jena, Jena, Germany, and cDepartment of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Rockford, Ill., USA
                Article
                71961 Neuroendocrinology 2003;78:61–71
                10.1159/000071961
                12915758
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 97, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Gonadal Steroids and Regulation of Reproductive Hormones

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