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      A germline PALB2 pathogenic variant identified in a pediatric high-grade glioma

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          Abstract

          PALB2 (partner and localizer of BRCA2) gene encodes a protein that colocalizes with BRCA2 in nuclear foci and likely permits the stable intranuclear localization and accumulation of BRCA2. PALB2 plays a critical role in maintaining genome integrity through its role in the Fanconi anemia and homologous recombination DNA repair pathways. It has a known loss-of-function disease mechanism. Biallelic PALB2 pathogenic variants have been described in autosomal recessive Fanconi anemia. Heterozygous pathogenic variants in PALB2 are associated with increased risk for female and male breast cancer and pancreatic cancer ( Science 324: 217; Cancer Res 71: 2222–2229; N Engl J Med 371: 497–506). Heterozygous germline PALB2 mutations have also been observed in patients with medulloblastoma ( Lancet Oncol 19: 785–798). However, PALB2-related cancer predisposition to high-grade gliomas has not been reported. Here we report a germline PALB2 pathogenic variant (c.509_510delGA, p.Arg170Ilefs*14, NM_024675.3) found in a pediatric patient with high-grade glioma. This variant was first identified by tumor sequencing using the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) Comprehensive Solid Tumor Panel and then confirmed to be a germline change using the CHOP Comprehensive Hereditary Cancer Panel on DNA from a blood sample of this patient. Parental studies showed that this variant was paternally inherited. Further studies are needed to illustrate if pathogenic variants in PALB2 convey increased risk to developing brain tumor. This case also highlights the potential of identifying germline mutation through tumor sequencing.

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          Integrated Molecular Meta-Analysis of 1,000 Pediatric High-Grade and Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

          Summary We collated data from 157 unpublished cases of pediatric high-grade glioma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma and 20 publicly available datasets in an integrated analysis of >1,000 cases. We identified co-segregating mutations in histone-mutant subgroups including loss of FBXW7 in H3.3G34R/V, TOP3A rearrangements in H3.3K27M, and BCOR mutations in H3.1K27M. Histone wild-type subgroups are refined by the presence of key oncogenic events or methylation profiles more closely resembling lower-grade tumors. Genomic aberrations increase with age, highlighting the infant population as biologically and clinically distinct. Uncommon pathway dysregulation is seen in small subsets of tumors, further defining the molecular diversity of the disease, opening up avenues for biological study and providing a basis for functionally defined future treatment stratification.
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            Exomic sequencing identifies PALB2 as a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene.

            Through complete sequencing of the protein-coding genes in a patient with familial pancreatic cancer, we identified a germline, truncating mutation in PALB2 that appeared responsible for this patient's predisposition to the disease. Analysis of 96 additional patients with familial pancreatic cancer revealed three distinct protein-truncating mutations, thereby validating the role of PALB2 as a susceptibility gene for pancreatic cancer. PALB2 mutations have been previously reported in patients with familial breast cancer, and the PALB2 protein is a binding partner for BRCA2. These results illustrate that complete, unbiased sequencing of protein-coding genes can lead to the identification of a gene responsible for a hereditary disease.
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              A novel germline PALB2 deletion in Polish breast and ovarian cancer patients

              Background PALB2 protein was recently identified as a partner of BRCA1 and BRCA2 which determines their proper function in DNA repair. Methods Initially, the entire coding sequence of the PALB2 gene with exon/intron boundaries was evaluated by the PCR-SSCP and direct sequencing methods on 70 ovarian carcinomas. Sequence variants of interest were further studied on enlarged groups of ovarian carcinomas (total 339 non-consecutive ovarian carcinomas), blood samples from 334 consecutive sporadic and 648 consecutive familial breast cancer patients, and 1310 healthy controls from central Poland. Results Ten types of sequence variants were detected, and among them four novel polymorphisms: c.2996+58T>C in intron 9; c.505C>A (p.L169I), c.618T>G (p.L206L), both in exon 4; and c.2135C>T (A712V) in exon 5 of the PALB2 gene. Another two polymorphisms, c.212-58A>C and c.2014G>C (E672Q) were always detected together, both in cancer (7.5% of patients) and control samples (4.9% of controls, p = 0.2). A novel germline truncating mutation, c.509_510delGA (p.R170fs) was found in exon 4: in 2 of 339 (0.6%) unrelated ovarian cancer patients, in 4 of 648 (0.6%) unrelated familial breast cancer patients, and in 1 of 1310 controls (0.08%, p = 0.1, p = 0.044, respectively). One ovarian cancer patient with the PALB2 mutation had also a germline nonsense mutation of the BRCA2 gene. Conclusions The c.509_510delGA is a novel PALB2 mutation that increases the risk of familial breast cancer. Occurrence of the same PALB2 alteration in seven unrelated women suggests that c.509_510delGA (p.R170fs) is a recurrent mutation for Polish population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud
                Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud
                cshmcs
                cshmcs
                cshmcs
                Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
                Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
                2373-2873
                August 2020
                : 6
                : 4
                : a005397
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA;
                [2 ]Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA;
                [3 ]Division of Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA;
                [4 ]Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: lim5@ 123456email.chop.edu
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4253-2369
                Article
                MCS005397Zho
                10.1101/mcs.a005397
                7476410
                32554798
                c6595521-159b-406a-9c77-b65305a56d37
                © 2020 Zhong et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits reuse and redistribution, except for commercial purposes, provided that the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 18 March 2020
                : 18 May 2020
                Page count
                Pages: 4
                Funding
                Funded by: Children's Hospital of Philadelphia , open-funder-registry 10.13039/100006458;
                Funded by: NIH , open-funder-registry 10.13039/100000002;
                Award ID: U2CHL138346
                Categories
                Rapid Cancer Communication

                glioma
                glioma

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