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      Relationship between Dislocation Density and Antibacterial Activity of Cryo-Rolled and Cold-Rolled Copper

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          In the present work, cold rolling and cryo-rolling were performed on 99% commercially pure copper substrates. Both cold and cryo-rolling processes caused severe plastic deformation that led to an increase in dislocation density by 14× and 28× respectively, as compared to the pristine material. Increases in average tensile strengths, by 75% (488 MPa) and 150% (698 MPa), were observed in the two rolled materials as the result of the enhancement in dislocation density. In addition to strength, enhanced antibacterial property of cryo-rolled copper was observed in comparison to cold rolled and pristine copper. Initial adhesion and subsequent proliferation of bio-film forming Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus was reduced by 66% and 100% respectively for cryo-rolled copper. Approximately 55% protein leakage, as well as ethidium bromide (EtBr) uptake, were observed confirming rupture of cell membrane of S. aureus. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy reveals higher leaching of elemental copper in nutrient broth media from the cryo-rolled copper. Detailed investigations showed that increased dislocation led to leaching of copper ions that caused damage to the bacterial cell wall and consequently killing of bacterial cells. Cryo-rolling enhanced both strength, as well as antibacterial activity, due to the presence of dislocations.

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          Most cited references 35

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               Ruslan Valiev (2004)
              Despite rosy prospects, the use of nanostructured metals and alloys as advanced structural and functional materials has remained controversial until recently. Only in recent years has a breakthrough been outlined in this area, associated both with development of new routes for the fabrication of bulk nanostructured materials and with investigation of the fundamental mechanisms that lead to the new properties of these materials. Although a deep understanding of these mechanisms is still a topic of basic research, pilot commercial products for medicine and microdevices are coming within reach of the market. This progress article discusses new concepts and principles of using severe plastic deformation (SPD) to fabricate bulk nanostructured metals with advanced properties. Special emphasis is laid on the relationship between microstructural features and properties, as well as the first applications of SPD-produced nanomaterials.

                Author and article information

                Materials (Basel)
                Materials (Basel)
                09 January 2019
                January 2019
                : 12
                : 2
                [1 ]Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016, India; vinodparmar.9876@
                [2 ]Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016, India
                [3 ]Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016, India; kandarp.changela06@
                [4 ]Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India; srinivasbehera108@ (B.S.); skpanigrahi@ (S.K.P.); hariharan@ (K.H.)
                [5 ]Stem Cell Research Facility, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India; (M.M.S.); drmohantysujata@ (S.M.)
                [6 ]Department of Biomedical Engineering, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India
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                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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